In regards to terrorism as a major security threat, it is worth noting that conceptualizing terrorism remains to be a task that is quite challenging and the aspect of combating it becomes harder. Terrorism can be defined as being an act of violence or even a threat whose motives or intentions entails the element of carrying out either a person of collective plans of criminals with an objective of terrorizing humanity. In Libya, in particular, the since the former leader Muammar Gaddafi got captured besides being killed in 2011, there has been a popular uprising that resulted in uprising of the war among the militias of Libyan. It is equally imperative to note that Islamist Insurgent groups including the Islamic State (IS) have made it a routine to rely on the tactics of terrorism for advancing their agenda in Libya thereby targeting foreign together with the diplomatic persons, assets, hotels, government headquarters as well as petroleum buildings (Gunaratna 5).
At the same time, the Egyptian government has adopted the approach of 'wait and see' given how Islamists insurgent in Northern Sinai regularly count on the attacks of the terrorists in destabilizing the region further. According to media pundits, it is assumed that in July 2003 military-backed ouster of the previous Islamist president Mohamed Morsi thereby fueling the rise of the extremist attacks. Nevertheless, this argument remains questionable considering that Egypt has been taking part in the campaigns of anti-terrorism form the time of the rise of Islamist militancy in the 1980s. It is also equally imperative to realize that the extent of the terrorist operations depended on the level of state security policy competence (Dunn 24).
Tunisia, on the other hand, is as well faced with related challenges. Not long ago when the security patrol in the central Kasserine's Al-Manar district happens to have been attacked by gunmen following an incident upon which the responsibility was claimed by IS. As North African states endure suffering in regards to the aspect of developing efficient, strategies of anti-terrorism, as well as threats relating to new attacks, loom large (Lochner, Stefan, and Dieckhoner 168).
Insurgencies and terrorist attacks remain to be two different things with rebels involving the attempt by the militant group in coming up with control over territories via support of the population. Operations of the Counterinsurgency entails military, enforcement of the law, economic, political, psychological as well as civic actions that are taken defeating insurgency while at the same time dealing with root causes in Libya, Egypt as well as Tunisia. About border threats, problem investigated by the Royal United Services for studies of defense and security studies concludes that about 30 percent of the illicit cigarettes currently in the market of French have originated from Algeria. However, it is worth noting that border threats go beyond cigarette smuggling to include weapons, migrants, as well as drugs reported to have been smuggled via borders of the states in North Africa. Governments have the task of controlling illegal movement of good and peoples alongside their borders, thereby posing greater security threats and hence the need of coordinated policy efforts between states (Lochner, Stefan, and Dieckhoner 167).
In accordance to the international labor organization (ILO), Gunaratna (4) notes that the economic security involves various basic living necessities that include health, education, dwelling as well as social protection that remains one of the present day key concern for the states in North Africa. In terms of the human security, development and stability of the people's livelihoods including economic, food, health or environment remain crucial to the residents of North Africa. Human security threats have individuals living in North Africa content with the high cost of living, pollution, unemployment, and death, especially in conflict-hit areas.
Dunn, Kevin C., et al. Inside African Politics. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Incorporated, 2019.
Gunaratna, Rohan. "Global threat forecast 2019." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses 11.1 (2019): 1-5.
Lochner, Stefan, and Caroline Dieckhoner. "Civil unrest in North Africa-Risks for natural gas supply?." Energy Policy 45 (2012): 167-175.
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