Essay Sample on Middle East: Tribal, Religious Identities and Challenges

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1830 Words
Date:  2023-01-28


The territory of the modern Middle East was initially part of the Ottoman Empire where few states were recognized as part of the economic contributors in the region. Arabism and Islam became the significant elements that united the Middle East and its neighboring countries. The tribal and religious identities defined the state boundaries that shaping the kind of behavior that the neighboring states exhibited toward each other. In determining the present challenges facing the Middle East, both economic and political aspects play a primary role in defining its international relations with other nations. To explain the economic context, then much of the territorial disputes and growth has to the described. Wars financially ruined states and a similar case was noted with the Russian government.

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Question 1

Public Debt Administration (PDA) played a dominant role in addressing financial challenges during the 1875 economic crisis. After a long period of war and economic crisis in Russia, it was evident that trade and business were declining and this initiated significant challenges to the leaders and raised social problems such as the rising poverty levels. Another crucial aspect that contributed to increasing debts was the political conflicts and wars, which accounted for half of the Empire's resources. Finding immediate solutions to the problem was difficult since the trading partners were similarly faced with the challenges (Halevy, 2017). As a result, the economic development became uneven and substantial wealth inequality was noted in the region. The situation further weakened the empire's ability to conquer other nations since they were incapable of manufacturing military equipment such as the nuclear-powered submarines.

The PDA offered appropriate sovereign debt management through a process that executed and managed government debt by raising the required amount of funding. For the case of the Russian government, a similar strategy applied well. The process was achieved by the integration of a broader macroeconomic context. It further allowed the government to reduce the rate of public debts and ensured sustainable finance management. PDA is further achieved when the debt managers share both fiscal and monetary management in ensuring the state remains its value in terms of managing different threats associated with the financing sector. The 1875 crisis was featured by increased public debt that reduced the ability of the financial managers to develop appropriate measures in ensuring that the debts were sustainable. With increased threats of interstate wars, Russia became poorly structured in terms of resource management and the ability to develop immediate solutions to address the rising debts crisis. The process of integrating PDA, therefore, identified the primary source of the problem and addressed through macroeconomic context that allowed the government to reduce the rates of borrowing. The strategy also evaluated the GDP, and tax revenues to ensure that the required targets were achieved with reduced financial risks (Halevy, 2017).

The other PDA strategy was to address the market crisis by enhancing capital markets since the government and debt management policies had failed to reduce the rates at which expenditure was exposed to contingent liabilities. It further focused on reducing GDP risks by ensuring that state resources were initiated to improve the payments of debts. This provided an opportunity to manage the domestic markets and focus on establishing better terms with the debtors. PDA further provided a new platform for reducing vulnerabilities associated with the future financial crisis. It also efficiently structured debts to contain other threats caused by previous debt. Besides, it maintained the government financial securities. The impact of securing financial issues was critical, and this was evident from the way the political leaders took this as part of the significant strategy toward addressing the crisis surrounding debts issues across the country. Although the method could not provide an immediate solution, it directly impacted on the way the leaders acted to minimize increasing debts across the country

Question 2

The tactic applied by the British was one of the most dynamic in terms of resistance noted in the Middle East. Through divide and rule strategy, the team was able to conquer most of the Indian states. When compared to the methods applied in the Middle East, one can identify the significant differences in the way they strategized their governance in the region. It is one of the region that is well known for the famous Ottoman Empire (Can, 2016). The empire was strong, and this made it challenging for any ruler to conquer. However, the British further used divide and rule strategy with a critical focus of overruling the existing governments in the region.

The British involvement with the Ottoman Empire marked an entry into World War I which ended in 1914. Although the British did not conflict with the Turks, the goal of defeating Germans was one of the critical factors that confronted Turkey. In response to the British move, the Turks' planned a postwar dispensation to make a new phase of postwar partitions between the British and the Germans. As a result, the British were humiliated severally through the army dispatched to India. Furthermore, the Turkish raid to Suez Canal intensified the division and affected the British occupation at the Sinai Peninsula General Edmund, however, entered Jerusalem and led to the success of battle Megiddo which was meant to conquer Syria. As a result, the Turkish military responded to the move, but then the British had conquered most of the parts of the Ottoman Empire. Control of the Middle East then became more comfortable, and he offered opportunities to overcome other areas of the region.

Hassan Sharif was initially in protest of the Balfour Declaration and establishments of the empire of British rulers in the Middle East. Even though he was a Muslim and member of the Ottoman Empire, the British influenced them based on their religious perspective and their ability to introduce projects that favored the people of the Ottoman Empire. Furthermore, the team was viewed to have reduced most of the social threats associated with the financial disparities and leadership wrangles that existed within the empire. Apart from these differences, the influence of German had initially failed to cover up political issues and fail to approach the Islamic culture effectively. On the contrary, the British developed a system that was favourable to the Islam community. Sharif understood the role of tribes within the empire and the need to integrate diverse governance methods that would reduce threats posed by other nations. For instance, they forced the British to enact a policy which had been sustained over a long period. In response to the move, the British established new policies as a means of resolving the social and economic problem. The policy system was not well-developed since it failed to address the needs of the people. Difficult circumstances noted during such period was detrimental to the leaders. Such situations prompted the senior leaders to seek new solutions to the problem. While Hassan Sharif focused on establishing lasting reforms to the empire, he understood that people's culture and beliefs were more prominent in achieving the Empire's long-term goals.

Question 3

Palestinians have a long history that contributes to the long struggle between the Middle East Communities. Interaction between Arab-Jews originated from the Sephard-Zionist divides of Palestine Jews and the Arabs. Jews played a significant role in modern Arab culture since they participated in most of the Arab movements. As a result, the growing interest of Palestinians to participate in most of the political events contributed to successes of the empire. Most of them were then associated with the Arab-Palestinian nationalism. As a result, they devoted to most of the political activities related to a need to address issues such as low work wages and, improve economic power in the region. Most of the Palestinians interacted with other tribes to shape their behaviour.

The proclamation of the Balfour in 1917 marked the end of Ottoman Empire. The period also marked the arrival of the British to Palestine. The move transformed both the political and economic situation in the region. Although the civil and religious rights were observed, Palestinians realized the need to safeguard its people from the influence of the British who focused on gaining cheap labor and taking part of their land. Another impact noted during this period was regulated by Jewish immigration in Palestine. Palestinians focused on maintaining the security of its nation despite assuming that they would gain independence after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. The revolution noted in Arab and entry of Faysal to Damascus reduced the chances of the Palestinians gaining full independence.

The British had imposed a direct colonial rule that elevated Palestinian leaders to react. The case was more evident; the Jews critically disapproved their governance. The Palestinians raised opposition strategies and their support diminished after 1930. Withstanding Palestinians as a single empire was challenging, and the emerging movements from the Zionist initiated the process. They also responded to Jewish immigration, political demands and the sale of lands by insisting that required independence. After Egypt achieved liberation in almost the same period, the Palestinians were motivated and determined to gain its independence (Dana, 2015). They argued based on the diverse political context. One of the main goals was to protect their territory. They defended their empire, especially when the British planned to use it to address the issues of the Jews in Europe. They also focused on finding methods of preventing the Jewish nationals from overriding their rights

The Palestinian opposition intensified at around 1930 with the widespread of revolt and strike. An unemployed society of Palestinians initiated the revolt, and displaced workers united in opposing the British. Consequently, the Palestinians were forced to advocate for territorial partition. The process would enhance the protection of the territories and improve security across the regions. The move further allowed them to acquire sufficient land and develop their communities. With the support of Palestinians from other regions, the strategy to impact on the region became successful, and this motivated other Arab communities to seek freedom and equal rights during the colonial era.

Participation of Palestinians in many liberation activities showed that they were part of the Arab nationalism. For instance, they focused on establishing themselves and ensuring that their rights were protected. They were concerned about the settler community since they did not anticipate the eminent conflicts, and this prompted significant conflicts across the region. They understood the need of keeping the communities settles (Dana, 2015). The growth of the settler communities was faced with threats and conflicts from the Arab communities, and the Palestinians could not anticipate the group at the nation to the state level.

Question 4

The Middle East is one of the most volatile regions in terms of unity. It is based on territorial states. However, they are faced with a challenge of Pan-Arabism, which has often attempted to do away with the western imperialism. For instance, the ideology of Syria poses a significant threat to Islamism nations. One of the critical challenges associated with such divisions has been attributed to the rising Islamist notions of a single Muslim community. Therefore, western imperialism has been negat...

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