Essay Sample on Kidney Stones: Distinguishing Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1153 Words
Date:  2023-01-30


Based on the case study scenario the doctor first concludes that the client is having a kidney stone primarily because one of the most common symptoms while passing a kidney stone is a flank pain on the abdomen and the patient may also experience intense nausea. But, it would be essential to carry out a kidney stone analysis or diagnosis to examine whether the pain is only felt in the flank to help distinguish between kidney stone and kidney infection or urinary tract infection (UTI) since both of them are associated with flank pain (Grabe, 2015). The primary function of the kidney is, however, to remove all the excess fluid and waste from the blood, which forms urine. However, upon taking too much of specific residues as well as an insufficient fluid into the blood, the waste can at times accumulate and stick together in the kidneys forming clumps of wastes that are often referred to as kidney stones. Urinary tract infection, on the other hand, is adequately described as the infection affecting kidney, bladder, and urethra mostly caused by a urinary obstruction or bowel incontinence (Grabe, 2015). Typically, some of the manifestations commonly linked to with a UTI are a persistent impulse to urinate, lower back pains and suprapubic pain that includes rectal pain for men and pelvic pain in women, cloudy and red urine high fever with chills, painful urination or dysuria, bloodstains in the urine or hematuria, strong-smelling urine and a burning sensation while urinating.

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The Manifestations Associated With a Kidney Stone

A kidney stone is also known as urinary calculi have primarily been defined as masses of crystals comprising of minerals that are removed generally in the urine, which often results in obstructions at any point within the urinary system (Preminger, Curhan & O'Leary, 2018). The primary causes of kidney stones include excess dietary intake of calcium and lack of water or dehydration. Furthermore, certain medical conditions like medullary sponge kidney, Crohn's disease, and UTI increase the vulnerability of the formation of kidney stones (Rossetti, 2018). Important manifestations of kidney stones include dull and aching flank pain, fever and chills, pain that radiates to suprapubic region, microscopic hematuria, many vary concerning location and size and may also be asymptomatic.

Kidney Stone Diagnostic Testing

The diagnostic testing that would help determine the presence of kidney stones in this case scenario would mainly be a CT scan or ultrasounds. Ideally, various distinct diagnostic tests can be applied to verify the presence of a kidney stone. For instance, the analysis of the urine can help to reveal whether or not there is blood in the urine or a subsequent infection whereas a physical examination would substantially contribute to detect colicky pain in the groin or the lower region near the kidneys (Preminger, Curhan & O'Leary, 2018). But for this case, a CT scan of the abdomen would be one of the most useful tests to diagnose for kidney stones. The scan will help in confirming the condition of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder, and if a stone exists, it will help examine its exact location and size. Through this scan, the doctor can also determine if a blockage has occurred and explore other parts within the region, for example, the pancreas, appendix, and aorta (Preminger, Curhan & O'Leary, 2018). The ultrasounds would also work correctly for this case, which has for an extended period been used as a result of its high detection rates and its ability to diagnose other complications related to kidney stones (Rossetti, 2018). However, once the patient is confirmed to have a kidney stone, the doctor performs simple X-rays to evaluate the development of the stone via the excretory system.

The Need to Strain All the Urine

In response to the client reactions upon the request by the doctor to strain all his urine, the doctor would respond with an excellent answer explaining to the client why straining of urine is so crucial in diagnosing a kidney stone. Straining the urine would significantly aid in recovering the stone, and upon retrieving it, the doctor analyzes it in the laboratory to discover the composition of the stone that may include uric acid and calcium oxalate (American Kidney The analysis test of the kidney stone is primarily performed on a stone that has been strained from the urine or excreted from the urinary tract during surgery (Rossetti, 2018). This analysis, however, plays a prominent role in guiding the medication procedure and providing information that may help the patient to prevent more future kidney stones

Complication Associated With a Kidney Stone

In essence, some of the kidney stones that are left inside the body can result in numerous complications, which includes the blockage of the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder, blocking the path that the urine passes from the body (Rossetti, 2018). Other scientific research reveals that patient suffering from kidney stones is significantly vulnerable in having chronic kidney disease.

Different Types of Stones and Possible Causes

Kidney stones can take shape and the size of a small grain of sand and can occasionally stay in the kidneys or come out through the ureters and out of the body with the urine. There are four distinct forms of kidney stones, and one of the types is the cysteine stones that comprises of a chemical made naturally in the body known as cysteine (American Kidney However, these stones are scarce to find and often occur to individuals with a genetic disorder that contributes to the leakage of cysteine from the kidneys to the urine. The other type is uric acid stones, which are formed as a result of too acidic urine. Calcium stones are the third type and the most prevalent form of kidney stones that are made up of oxalate and calcium (American Kidney The fourth type is struvite stones that often occur when a person has UTI where the bacteria produce ammonia that accumulates in the urine.

Treatment Options At This Point

Treatment options for kidney stones primarily focus on symptom management while passing a kidney stone or straining urine can be very painful. At this point, since the client has never passed a kidney stone, the recommended treatment would be rehydration through an intravenous (IV) tube or rather the anti-inflammatory medication can be given.


American Kidney "Kidney Stones" Retrieved from

Grabe, M., Bjerklund-Johansen, T. E., Botto, H., Cek, M., Naber, K. G., Tenke, P., & Wagenlehner, F. (2015). Guidelines on urological infections. European association of urology, 182. Retrieved from

Preminger, G. M., Curhan, G. C., & O'Leary, M. P (2018). Patient education: Kidney stones in adults (Beyond the Basics). Retrieved from

Rossetti, S. R. (2018). Kidney Stones. In Managing Segmental Renal Diseases (pp. 15-18). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from

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Essay Sample on Kidney Stones: Distinguishing Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment. (2023, Jan 30). Retrieved from

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