Curriculum model refers to the directors used to draft curriculum guides or any other document utilized in education to decide or plan specific teaching aspects. There are different curriculum models used in this regard. Therefore, this essay will explore various curriculum models and their differences in curriculum development for the associates, undergraduates, and graduate programs.
The two most common types of curriculum models are the product and the process model. The product model of the curriculum is result-oriented. This means that its main objective is the grades. Therefore, it focuses on the results of learning rather than the learning process (Chu, Deuermeyer & Quek, 2018). The process curriculum model, on the other hand, concentrates on how things occur in learning and it is open-ended. It mainly concentrates on how the learning process is developed over time from one level to another as well as student's thinking and how they are learning. Therefore, based on their focus, both models have benefits and limitations to learning that different stakeholders assess while deciding on the appropriate model centered on their setting and the intended objectives to be achieved.
One of the most significant benefits of the product model is that it allows for better performance. Since its main interest is the product, this denotes that its key focus is to produce a quality product at the end of the learning session (Chu, Deuermeyer & Quek, 2018). However, its major drawback is that it does not focus on how the learning process is developed over time. This may prove challenging while using the model in the long run since desired results may not be achieved effectively (Ashghali-Farahani et al., 2018). The product model, on the other hand, is open-ended, which means that it is flexible. This means that it can absorb any changes taking place in the learning environment and incorporate it into learning. Therefore, it would ensure quality results are attained in the long run. A significant limitation of the process model, however, is that it concentrates mainly on the process without much attention on the end product. This may, in turn, lead to the attainment of undesired results in a curriculum. It is therefore important if the learning process is aligned to the results of learning. Therefore, to reduce their limitations and enjoy their advantages, they should be used together as a hybrid.
Associates, undergraduates, and graduate programs vary in the sense that they are offered at different levels of learning. For example, the associate curriculum development is developed while considering the skill requirements of the individuals at such level (Matthews, Belward, Coady, Rylands & Simbag, 2016). This means that much consideration will be given on research and knowledge dissemination. Therefore, at this level, the curriculum is designed to suit the learning delivery requirements of the individuals. The development of an undergraduate program curriculum, on the other hand, needs to accommodate the application of different concepts in real-life situations. Finally, the available resources and infrastructure in a given setting will greatly affect the delivery of graduate curriculum program. These variations, however, may change in the future based on the trends in the delivery of the content due to the advancement in technology.
The future curriculum trends for the associate, undergraduate, and graduate programs may be shaped by three key factors such as digital delivery, interest drive, and skills. For example, digital delivery is impacting on curriculum development since books are no longer the only source of content. However, there are many sources of content on the online platform where educators get reliable, valuable and updated information within a short period (Aasheim, Li & Williams, 2019). As such, it will shape how associated, undergraduates and graduates curriculum delivery is developed. Also, curriculum development in the future will be driven by the interest of the learners. The performance of the students is correlated directly to their performance and thus, the curriculum should be designed in such a way that it resonates around personalized learning. Finally, the skill requirement is what will shape the curriculum development for the associates, undergraduates and graduates (Aasheim et al., 2019). In this case, the curriculum will be developed to ensure the ability to leverage the collection of wisdom that can thrive on an online platform.
The process model and the product model have proved to be effective in the development of the curriculum. Various education needs for the associates, undergraduates and graduates determine the curriculum model that should be applied. Therefore, it is the responsibility of curriculum developers to consider the trends in the education sector to ensure effective results from the curriculum developed.
Aasheim, C. L., Li, L., & Williams, S. (2019). Knowledge and skill requirements for entry-level information technology workers: A comparison of industry and academia. Journal of information systems education, 20(3), 10. https://aisel.aisnet.org/jise/vol20/iss3/10
Ashghali-Farahani, M., Ghaffari, F., Hoseini-Esfidarjani, S. S., Hadian, Z., Qomi, R., & Dargahi, H. (2018). Neonatal intensive care nursing curriculum challenges based on context, input, process, and product evaluation model: A qualitative study. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 23(2), 111. doi: 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_3_17
Chu, S. L., Deuermeyer, E., & Quek, F. (2018). Supporting scientific modeling through curriculum-based making in elementary school science classes. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 16, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2017.09.002
Matthews, K. E., Belward, S., Coady, C., Rylands, L., & Simbag, V. (2016). Curriculum development for quantitative skills in degree programs: a cross-institutional study situated in the life sciences. Higher Education Research & Development, 35(3), 545-559. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2015.1107875
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