Neurobiology of Language, pp. 879-886.
The research article reviews the development of language among Autistic individuals. Authors affirm that despite many parents having concerns when their children delay to speak, it does not have any diagnostic measures. As they explain, both autistic and non-autistic pre-age children have difficulty in spoken words. They regulated their research to the 21st century. They demonstrate that existing diagnostic criteria only limits features of social interactions, communication, and other elements such as eye contact, facial expression, and hand signals. They avow that studies, which have measured the size of young Autistic children report that they usually have minimal communicative vocabularies than same-age normal developing children. Moreover, they state that within the few years of early childhood development, Autistic children tend to have flatter improvement trails. Authors conclude that the development of language in Autistic individuals is always delayed, but not abnormal. More to the point, they add that there is no relationship between language delay and Autism. Finally, they articulate that language development in Autism is extraordinarily diverse and adaptable. The research article is relevant to my topic as it provides critical information on the concerns about language development in children. Noticeably, the strength of the article is that it explains previous research about language development in children. The strength makes it easy to apprehend the paper because of the proof provided. On the other hand, the weakness of the article is that it would have had a sample size of autistic parents and children who would explain their experience in language development. Overall, delayed language development in children is a common thing, but not a necessarily a characteristic of autism.
Kenny, L., Hattersley, C., Molins, B., Buckley, C., Povey, C., & Pellicano, E. (2016). Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community. SAGE, Vol. 20, Issue 4.
The research paper seeks to examine the different ways in which people from the UK prefer to describe autistic terms. As they explain, different researchers have opposing views on the way to define autism. Their study based on community members, autistic people, parents, and the broader network of the UK. Researchers provided online surveys to 3470 UK citizens in the best way they describe Autism and the reason for their choices. Results from their online survey revealed that some preferred to call it autism, others on the autism spectrum, while the rest called it autism spectrum disorder, for which many community groups agreed. Nevertheless, researchers report that the groups disagreed with the use of several terms. They assert that a broader number of autistic adults, family members, friends, parents, as well as professionals preferred to call it Autism. Additionally, results depicted that fewer autistic adults and parents preferred to call it person with autism. Researchers suggest that despite disagreements and entrenchment of preference, there is no better way of describing autism in a way that will be universally conventional and preferred. They conclude that the clinic, schools, and the community ought to improve the understanding of Autism in the society.
The research article is relevant to my topic in a manner that it provides insights on how different people prefer to call Autism Spectrum Disorder. The strength of the article is that it provided online surveys where respondents can answer the questions freely without supervision. On the contrary, the weakness of the research is that the online survey might be a preconceived notion because it could be impossible to determine the number of males or females who filled up the survey.
Koegel, K, L., Koegel, L, R., Ashbaugh, K., Bradshaw, J.B. (2014). The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(1): 5056
The research journal talks about the significance of early identification and intervention of Autism in children. Researchers discuss both long and short-term benefits of early intervention of ASD in children. They explain that the rise in the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder has resulted in the demand of attention and intercession. They explain that their article agrees with Camaratas view that it is important to expand the evidence base for early detection and assessment of Autism. Nevertheless, their article disagrees with Warren et al.s view that there are no authenticated early interventions. As researchers explain, empirical evidence suggests that early onset of Autism intervention during infancy and toddlerhood has a broader possibility of an improved developmental trajectory. According to them, there has been a debate over the cost and time of early interventions of ASD compared to the wait and see model. They articulate that a vast majority of evidence from research suggests that the population with ASD support the utilization of single case experimental design. They assert that the significance of single case experimental designs is that it scrutinizes the outcomes of early intervention away from notable progress because it allows for clear estimations. They assert that the limitation of randomized clinical trials is that they have a weakness of masking clinical trials. Researchers conclude that early identification of ASD in children has positive impacts on the family as well as the society.
The research article is significant to my topic on Autism because it clearly outlines the importance of detecting ASD in children. The strength of the article is that it promptly points out that early interventions result in financial savings. On the contrary, the weakness of the article is that the information base is only limited to two researchers, Camarata, and Warren.
Maljaars, J., Boonen, H., Lambrechts, G., Leeuwen, V.K., and Noens, I. (2014). Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 44, pp. 501-512.
Researchers from the journal compare parenting behaviors between adolescents suffering from ASD and those without the disorder. They used 989 families from the Netherlands and Belgium. Additionally, they examined the association between child behavioral problems and their parents behaviors. Results from their study revealed that mothers of the children who suffer from ASD had higher scores of positive parenting, motivating the development, and adapting the environment. Similarly, they reported lower scores on setting rules and disciplinary actions. Moreover, researchers found that there was no relationship between the ages of the child with parenting behavior in the ASD versus control groups. More to the point, the authors found distinctive correlation patterns between parental behavior and both external as well as internal behavior problems in both ASD and control groups. Researchers conclude that despite the efficiency of parenting behavior requiring further research, parenting behavior is significant in behavioral problems in children who Autism.
Research in the journal is informational as it primarily focuses on the behavioral aspects of parenting. Apparently, the research is relevant to my topic in a manner that it talks about how parents behave towards their children who suffer from ASD. However, since researchers of the article assessed variables simultaneously, the paper fails to provide grounds on the directionality between parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Despite the robustness of the study, interpreting their findings is difficult because of the complicated relationship between parents and their children. On a broader perspective, parenting behavior could help medical professionals to determine the correct approach parents should take towards their children. Overall, the mode of parenting is important for parents who have children with autism because it may affect their development at a later stage.
Siewertsen, C., French, E., and Teramoto, M. (2015). Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pet Therapy. Advances, Spring, Vol. 29, No. 2.
In the journal, the authors discuss pet therapy as an alternative therapy intervention for autism. Authors talk about the effectiveness, findings, and limitations of pet therapy. They articulate that pets such as dogs and horses can help children with ASD develop better interaction as well as communication skills. As they explain, research reveals that pet therapy has shown positive effects on children. Additionally, they assert that the mode of treatment showed large degrees of contentment among the participants and their families. Moreover, they talk about the causes and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Symptoms that they explain include impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavior. In regards to the etiology, they articulate that scientists are unable to link anything to what exactly causes ASD. More so, they discuss conventional treatments such as communication, socialization, and behavior on a broader base. Authors conclude that further research has to be conducted on the most efficient pet therapy for children who have autism.
The journal provides an example of an expert opinion on therapy used to treat children with autism. The relevance of the journal to this paper is that it clearly outlines plausible facts about pet therapy. For instance, they provide an example of a research study by Berry et al. that reveals when parents introduce a dog to children with ASD, they tend to have minimal stress, anxiety, and irritation. More to the point, they affirm that a study by Burrows revealed that despite many complaints from parents that the dogs are difficult to handle, the benefits of the therapy outweigh any inconveniences. In general, the journal provides insights that support research about autism and treatment interventions.
Stenberg et al. (2014). Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at 18 Months in a General Population Sample. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 28, pp. 255262.
Researchers of the article investigate whether it is possible to diagnose an 18th-month child with Autism. They affirm that previous research on the signs of Autism is evident in children between the age of one and two years. They suggest that Autism is developmental, and can only become noticeable when the child has reached the age where behavioral problems begin to occur. The dataset of the research is 52,026 children who were born between 2003 and 2008. Also, the children in their study included those who were involved in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort as well as Autism Birth Cohort. They ensured that parents of the children in the study completed 23 items of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT). Results of the survey reveal that173 of the children diagnosed with Autism to date, 34.7, about 60 children scored above the cut-off on both 6 and 23 screening criteria. Consequently, researchers conclude that it is impossible to detect signs of Autism as early as 18 months.
The research is crucial as it provides insights on when parents should expect to notice a change in behavior in their children. Additionally, the relevance of the research to my topic is that its information is based on scientific proof and datasets. The strength of the article is that its target population and sample plan is appropriate because it managed to achieve plausible results. The weakness of the study is that it fails to estimate the sensitivity, specific...
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