CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
The use of video recordings for professional development and self-reflection has long been a fertile ground for professional training and evaluation in the teaching field. For instance, video teaching supervisors in universities use video recordings to access classroom performance of training teachers without the need for them being present in the classrooms. The employment of video recording for professional development and self-reflection in the teaching field has long evolved since their first introduction. According to Hamel et al. (2019), review studies on the use of video recordings for self-reflection and development revealed that the use of video recordings enabled the teachers especially those in training to focus more on the students and their learning. More, the use of video recordings to improve teacher performance though self-reflection made it possible for teachers to analyze the situation from different angles to aid conceptual change in teachers, something that basic observation does not allow (Hamel et al., 2019). However, there is criticism in the application of video recordings in classrooms for self-reflection and improvement of teaching skills because they offer a limited account of classroom interactions.
Overview of the research problem
Schon (1984), in his book, The reflective practitioner puts forward that a practitioner's self-reflection can serve as a corrective element in learning. Through reflection, a practitioner can criticize and surface the implicit understandings that have grown as a result of repetitive experiences with regard to their professions. Hence, through reflection, a practitioner can make a new sense of unique and uncertain situations, which are practiced (Schon, 1984). For instance, a musikant will reflect in an action of the music made and on individual contribution thinking about what they are doing and evolve their way of doing it in the process. With the emerging trends in technology and innovation, the aspect of self-reflection to improve and develop professional skills has evolved. In fact, it is an important part of the teacher tutelage programs in learning institutions. Tripp & Rich (2012) claim that studies have consistently reported the benefits of using videos as reflective self-improvement tools for teachers, especially because the videos have enabled teachers to recognize important patterns in their practice. The trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, a well-known study of self-improvement tools in teaching included a video of 1000 different classrooms from 7 different countries for teaching evaluations as proof of the existence of the application of videos as a self-reflective and improvement tool for teachers (Tripp & Rich, 2012).
Previous studies show an increased effective teaching behavior resulting from the use videos to improve teacher performance in classrooms (Tripp & Rich, 2012). Consequently, compared to the teachers who did not use video assessments for their teaching and training, teachers who used video recordings greatly improved their question-asking techniques, in that they gave students more time to comment and share each other's work. The studies also showed that teachers exposed to video assessments also increased the frequency and modification of positive general statements they provided for their students. The employment of videos as a self-reflective tool also aids in the development of a course of action for future teaching situations. There are no studies explaining how the use of video as self-reflective tools influence the process in which teachers changed their teaching (Tripp & Rich, 2012).
Statement of the problem
The practice of self- reflection is important and is practiced in professional settings. It helps to teach professionals to learn from their own professional experiences rather than formal learning (Priya Mathew et al., 2017). This suggests that reflective teaching enables teachers to develop more informed practice skills by relating the acquired teaching skills with what they have learned during their formative years. According to Priya Mathew et al. (2017), to develop more effective teaching skills, self-reflection is a skill that needs to be acquired by learning rather than automatic occurrence. Reflective practice is now a focal point of a powerful movement in teaching and one of interest, as it plays a significant role in the evaluation of a teacher's performance. Years down the line, innovation and the evolution of technology have made it easier for teachers to self-reflect. As a matter of fact, the evolution of technology has led to a simplified method of self-reflection for teachers, which is the use of videos. The use of videos has aided teachers self-reflecting as a way to improve and develop their teaching skills. Since reflective teaching is a significant aspect of the initial teachers' training program, this study aims to resolve the unpreparedness and lack of teaching skills on the teachers hired in schools. The self-reflection programs that include video recording as part of self-reflection are meant to alleviate the effects of inadequacy and unpreparedness of teachers hired in schools.
Deficiencies in the evidence
According to Tripp, & Rich (2012), the majority of researches and studies are limited to the purpose of improving teaching and its benefits rather than how the use of self-reflective tools has influenced the process in which teachers change, develop and improve their teaching. Tripp & Rich, (2012) clarify how the application of video recording in the self-reflecting process can improve and develop teaching skills that influences the change. This is despite the fact that after using video recordings as self-reflecting tools to improve and develop teaching skills, teachers reported that the self-reflection videos helped them view teaching from a different perspective, trust the response they received and feel the responsibility to change and improve their practice. Further, the teachers also reported the videos helped them implement the changes needed and focus their analysis (Tripp & Rich, 2012).
One of the most effective ways to make positive changes in classrooms is to self-reflect. Teachers take time to self-reflect as it is a structured and deliberate kind of thinking that focuses on improving and developing teacher's skills. Therefore, the audience most affected and privileged by reflective learning is the teachers. This is because self-reflection helps teachers identify a rationale for their practice, assess the performance as teachers, significantly improve their teaching skills, and aid the development of a course of action for future teaching situations in classrooms. In addition, through self-reflection, teachers are able to identify weaknesses and strengths in a lesson plan.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of self-reflection to improve performance and professional development using videos in the teaching profession.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter discusses the topics related to the influence of self-reflection to improve performance and professional development using videos. This includes the advantages of self-reflecting using videos, and unaddressed issues on the use of videos in self-reflection, which are the findings of the study. The chapter will also have a theoretical framework, which puts forward that personal theories and beliefs enhance the process of learning and developing teaching skills through reflective practice (Smith, 2003).
Smith (2003) explains the importance of connecting theory and reflective practice in teaching. She puts forward that the construct of personal theories is an innovative pedagogical technique for connecting reflective practice and theory in the teaching practice. Given the argument that reflective practice and acquired theory can be particularly useful in the development of a reflective disposition, teaching professionals should begin with analyzing and eliciting personal beliefs and theories. The elicited personal theories and beliefs will help in the acknowledgment of factors involved in the identification of autonomous teaching identities (Smith, 2003). This will ease the process of self-reflection to improve teaching practices as the teaching professionals will have the ability to connect the acquired theories, and information and fuse them with their self-reflection assessments to develop and improve their teaching practices.
Synthesis of findings
Self-reflection, also known as reflective learning is central to the professional development of teachers. There are two major findings in this study, which are the advantages of self-reflecting for teachers using videos and unaddressed issues in the use of videos in self-reflection.
Advantages of self-reflecting for teachers using videosA review highlighted by Tripp & Rich (2012), emphasizes that technological advances pushing the use of videos have seen learning institutions all over the world develop video analysis tools to ease the process of assessment during self-reflection. This is advantageous for the teachers as it takes less time and effort to evaluate their performances. This is reinforced by the fact that the use of videos in the evaluation and self-reflecting of teaching professionals is more efficient as teachers learn from their own professional experiences rather than formal learning (Priya Mathew et al., 2017). In addition, the application of videos in the self-reflecting process of teachers plays a major role in assessing teachers' performances in classrooms.
Unaddressed issues of the use of videos in self-reflectionAlthough a majority of researches and studies show the purpose and benefits of improving self-reflection in teaching using videos, there is limited research and study addressing how the employment of video recordings in the self-reflecting process in a bid to improve and develop teaching skills influences changes in teaching (Tripp & Rich, 2012).
Need for further research
Studies reveal criticisms in the use of video recordings in classrooms for self-reflection and improvement since they offer a limited account of classroom interactions. Moreover, according to Tripp, & Rich (2012), previous and present researches are limited to the study, the purpose and benefits of improving self-reflection in teachin...
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