Instructional technology in the modern lecture room regards to a highly innovative way of using a computer to persuade the students to learn. Researchers claim that using electronic means could help the educator to teach the students how to search and decipher information and ways of using technology for various projects. Some of the gadgets students are allowed to use in the classroom environment is a laptop, iPad, mobile phones, the Nook, and many more, which helps the students to share information with their students quickly. The leading advantage to online learning comprises assisting the users in understanding foreign language instruction, which has been made easy with programs as well as comprehensive internet courses. However, Loyd and Gressard (1986) claims that although utilizing instructional technology in the classroom is challenging, considering that technology is changing very quickly to the level that it is not easy to sustain the pace.
Modern Technology in Education
Based on the recent insights regarding the way modern learners prefer to use technology and the ways it impacts academic performance, it is evident that the use of instructional tools, learning as well as the interactivity of the scholars is enhanced (Thomas, 2016). Students also find the inclusion of modern technology to be highly interactive and filled with valuable areas of study. Research studies done by Thomas (2016) claim that with the increased use of technology in the classrooms, the transfer of information has been made very easy, convenient, and efficient. The latter implies that the minds of both the teacher and students work faster with the id of modern technology, be it on any sphere of life, especially in education. Wang, Zhao , and Zhao (2019) claim that increased dependence on such innovations makes the learning process easy and the learners tend to use it to enhance connectivity with their instructors and fellow students. Regardless of the cases of fraud and limitation, internet usage permits the learners to find exceptional convenience when searching for guidance, tutorials, as well as any other forms of materials that could enhance their learning process.
Visual images have always presented a robust appeal to the students as opposed to words. Studies have shown that the use of projectors and PowerPoint presentation help the students in quickly understanding the concepts being shared in the classroom (Snyder et al., 2016). Most of the tertiary educational institutions in the world tend to rely heavily on PowerPoint Presentations along with projects to ensure that learning is fascinating and interactive. Academic experts argue that learners like to see great visuals and something that motivates them to think rather than focus on reading words, which makes use of instructional technologies in the classroom beneficial. Researchers also argue that there is increased penetration of digital media in the education sector, which has enhanced the connectivity with learners and the different forums that are available for different types of assistance or assignments (Nurdyansyah, Rais, and Ain, 2017). Thus, as the power of instructional devices increases, there will be more features that are would to help students in the development as well as learning activities. Technology has also provided room for valid online degrees in society today (Alemi, 2016). Credible academic institutions provide fantastic online courses s well as programs with the use of different applications and the internet. The above provide information is an idea that is bound to grow immensely depending on the amount of support and awareness created in society today. Wang et al. (2019) argue that online degrees are famously being used by people who work or those who seek highly flexible learning programs that fit their lifestyles.
Role of Instructional Technology in Today's Classroom
The importance of technology in the field of education is four-fold because it is integrated as a "key segment of the curriculum, and instructional delivery system, a mean of helping instructions, and a viable tool to enhance the entire learning process" (Marcinkiewicz, 1994). Thus, the use of instructional devices in the classroom has played a significant role in transforming education from being passive as well as reactive to an interactive and aggressive one. Scholars argue that knowledge is crucial in both the corporate as well as academic environments. In the workplace, training is utilized to assist the employees in improving the way they approached things in their work environments. However, in the academic sector, education is directed towards preparing the people on how best they can handle real-life problems and creates a difference in the world. In either field, the use of instructional technologies could play a significant role in enhancing the way the students grasp and retain shared ideas.
Modern technologies are very demanding to the point that the instructors are forced to learn how to use them in their teaching activities, which implies that with increased innovation come an increase in the educator's training needs. Alemi (2016) asserted that the instructor's attitude towards different instructional technologies is a significant factor in the fruitful implementation of technology in their classrooms. It has been found that a considerable number of educators fail to present with a positive attitude towards computers, projectors, and visuals, which often negatively impacts their attempts to use them in the classrooms. Some of the barriers to proper use of instructional features in the school are lack of adequate amount of time, resources, lack of expertise, and inadequate technical support (Alemi, 2016). The other challenge as presented by Pierce (1998), is most of the educational technologies are not reliable. Reliability issues comprise hardware failures, incompatible software that cannot be used at home and school, poor internet connectivity, as well as outdated software that are making it very hard to implement ICT technologies in the schools fully.
In classrooms, the use of ICT has the potential of enhancing access to education, along with its relevance and quality. Studies carried out by Ouyang (2017) have shown that ICT features assist for the determination as well as the analysis of data obtained for the examination and computerization of learner's performance records. The latter implies that with the use of technology, learners can be actively engaged in the learning process as they have easy access to educational materials. As opposed to the rote learning approach, ICT tends to promote student engagement as they are given a chance to determine what they are supposed to learn at their pace and work on finding solutions to real-life problems. Besides, the use of instructional technologies encourages increased interaction as well as cooperation amongst the students or between teachers and their learners, regardless of the distance between them. ICT tools also provide the students with the opportunity to work with people from different backgrounds and in groups, which tend to enhance their communicative capabilities and global awareness. Experts argue that the use of technology results in increased cooperation among the students within and outside the classroom setting and there exists a highly interactive relationship between students and their instructors (Rother, 2004). "Collaboration is a philosophy of interaction and personal lifestyle where individuals are responsible for their actions, including learning and respect the abilities and contributions of their peers" (Li, 2018). Thus, the use of instructional devices in the schools provides an excellent opportunity for teachers to prepare the students to be competent problem solvers.
Moreover, ICT promotes the manipulation of the existing data and helps one ability to create knowledge to produce a desirable instructional purpose. With the increased use of technology in the lecture rooms, the educators will be able to initiate the integrative learning approach by doing away with synthetic separation between theory and practice that was common in conventional lecture room setting where more attention was directed towards a single aspect. Studies have shown that the use of ICT for learning is a student-centered approach that provides essential feedback through different interactive features (Rother, 2004). Thus, ICT allows the learners to discover and learn through the new forms of teaching quickly and studying that re supported by the constructivist theories of education rather than the student memorizing and rote learning models.
Positive Impacts of Instructional Technologies
The use of ICT features in the modern-day learning environment has resulted in enhanced teaching and learning. Studies have shown that "technological developments like digital cameras, projectors, mind training software, computers, Powerpoint presentations, 3D visualization tools; all these have become great sources for teachers to help students grasp a concept easily" (Todman and Dick, 1993). It is essential to understand that the visual description of learning concepts tends to make learning more fascination for learners, which in turn, triggers them to participate more in the classroom. Thus, instructional technologies provide educators with an opportunity to make their lectures highly interactive and exciting. The use of video conferencing features helps the educators along with their students to meet with their learning counterparts from other parts of the world without having to leave their classrooms or travel vast distances to meet them. The introduction of long-distance and online education has eliminated the geographical limitations, which helps people to access high-quality training at any time.
Negative Impact of Instructional Technologies in Education
Increased use of technologies has resulted in a decline in writing skills. Studies done by Vannatta and Fordham (2004) have led to excessive use of online chatting as well as shortcuts, the writing abilities of today's young generation have fallen considerably. In the present day, kids depend extensively on digital communication that they have entirely forgotten about their writing techniques (Vrasidas and McIsaac, 2001). Secondly, instructional technologies have increased cases of cheating in examinations. Scholars argue that technological products such as graphical calculators, high tech watches, mini cameras, and similar devices have become top units used to cheat in tests (Van Braak, 2001). Thus, some of these features have made it very easy for learners to access course materials while in examinations. If poorly regulated, technologies could result in a loss of focus as the learners could now start messaging as a way of passing the time. The learner may also be playing with their devices, iPads, and many more, which makes them fail to concentrate on their academic work. Besides, by being highly interconnected to the online society, the student has been unable to pay attention to their academic work and some level in sports as well as many other co-curriculum activities.
Factors Influencing the Use of Technology in the Classroom
In modern society, it is tough to find a kid of any age not using some form of technology. Scholars argue that learners are perceived as digital natives who are immersed daily in the society of interactive technologies such as phones, television, iPads, and many other limitless resources that provide a solution to any issues facing the people. The traditional model of teaching with lectures and students placed in rows is not active, which led to schools that must integrate technology into their curriculum and prepare learners for the 21st entury skill...
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