Horace contribution to education made him be called founder of a common school. Horace main contribution is the introduction of the Common School Movement, which insisted that all children should receive basic education at the expense of local taxes. As a result, he helps introduce public schooling. He also played a critical role in professionalizing teaching through teacher training school (Noel, 2018).
Maria Montessori (1870 - 1952).
The significant contribution of Maria Montessori in education is the development of the Montessori Method of education. She looked at education at the scientific level. In an effort to use education to prepare students for all aspects of life, Maria designed techniques and material for teaching that would promote the inclusive growth of a learner. Her method of education is based on hand-on learning, self-directed activity, and collaborative play. She was highly influential in the innovation of the currently beautifully crafted classroom environment to meet the needs of learners (Bone, 2019).
Brown V Board of Education -1954
Brown V. Board of Education was a revolutionary case of 1954 where the court abolished racial segregation in government schools. The ruling created the foundation for "separate-but-equal" education, among other services that were not equal at all. In the separate-but-equal ruling, the court ruled that racially segregated public facilities are acceptable and legal as long as the facilities in whites and blacks were equal (Matthews, 2016).
Race to the Top (2010)
Race to the Top was a $4 billion competitive grant by the United States Department of Education to promote reforms and spur innovation in the state and local districts. The grants were awarded to states that enacted competitive education policies. For a state to qualify for funding, the qualification was based on several performances, such as principal and teacher effectiveness, among others. The initiative forced states to create more competitive educational policies (Lomascolo & Angelle, 2019).
B.F Skinner (1904-1990)
B.F Skinner was a great psychologist whose work influenced education. He argued that education should service two main reasons: (1) to interest students in learning; and (2) to teach both nonverbal and verbal behavior. Skinner suggested that to achieve appropriate learning behavior; reinforcement plays a critical role. He further stated that punishment has a negative effect on learners since learners tend to associated learning with pain. As a result of his theories, many educational institutions use motivation to help the student learn (Matheus & Pereira, 2019).
The contributions of Maria Montessori, Horace Man, B.F Skinner, Race to the Top, and Brown V Board of Education had a significant influence on the current education system. Most of the philosophy of education used in the current era, originate from these events and personalities.
Bone, J. (2019). Maria Montessori as a domestic goddess: iconic early childhood educator andmaterial girl. Gender and Education, 31(6), 673-687. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09540253.2017.1396293
Lomascolo, D. J., & Angelle, P. S. (2019). Teacher Tenure in Tennessee: An Examination of Principal Perceptions Post-Race to the Top. NASSP Bulletin, 103(2), 98-117. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0192636519830766
Matheus, N. M., & Pereira, M. M. (2019). Analysis of a national policy for education, accordingto Skinner. Psicologia da Educacao, (48), 99-109. http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?pid=S1414-69752019000100011
Matthews, M. F. (2016). Brown v. Board and the Transformation of American Culture: Education and the South in the Age of Desegregation. The Southeastern Librarian, 64(1), 25. https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/seln/vol64/iss1/25/
Noel, R. (2018). "No wonder they are sick, and die of study": European fears for the scholarlybody and health in New England schools before Horace Mann. Paedagogica Historica, 54(1-2), 134-153. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00309230.2017.1355327
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