Enlightenment: European Reason Movement of 17th & 18th Centuries - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1368 Words
Date:  2023-08-02


Enlightenment, French siècle des Lumieres (Literally “ century od the Enlightened) German Aufklarung, a European rational movement of the 17th and 18th centuries where ideas regarding God, reason, nature, and humankind were created into a worldview that gained full permission in the west, and that prompted revolutionary expansions in art, politics, and philosophy. Enlightenment was a cultural and intellectual movement in the 18th century which underlined reason over misconception and science over blind faith.

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The ideas of the enlightenment were to spread new information about honesty inquiry and religious tolerance through Europe and the Americas. It was considered as the main turning point in Western civilization and the age of light substituting that of darkness. It had other ideas that conquered its thought which include:


This is the ideas where the human can use their ability of motive to attain information. It was a sharp turn away from the prevailing idea that an individual needed to depend on scriptures or the authorities of the church for expertise.


It endorses the idea that knowledge is gained for involvement and comment on the world.


It is their faith that through the power of reason, comment, people can make unrestricted, linear development over time. The belief was significant as accountable to the carnage and upheaval of the English Civil Wars in the 17th century.

How the Ideals Influence the French Revolution

The enlightenment provided an essential intellectual basis for the begging of the French Revolution. The ideals of freedom and equity, that were required to revolution Louis XVI emerged from the writing of essential philosophers of Age of enlightenment; generally, the writings of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, along with Baron de Montesquieu significantly influenced the rebels in France. The Ideals of many enlightenment thinkers were explicitly discussed and debated in the salons of France, where intellects would gather to deliberate the ideas of the day.

Additionally, the ideals influenced the revolution of French by the assertion of the right of man and the citizen. The declaration played a significant part in the revolution of French because it right challenged the consultant of Louis XVI. For instance, the announcement of the Rights of Man and the Citizen listed a list of people who were endangered by the law.

Midterm Four: Part Two

What are Some of The Causes and Consequences of the Industrial Revolution?

The industrial revolution first started in Britain in the 18th century and soon spread through Europe and North America. According to Historians, the industrial revolution was produced by:

Embargo Act of 1807

President Thomas Jefferson set the action during the Napoleonic Wars. The navy of Britain had detained Americans and their cargo to aid with their war. In the Chesapeake area, the fire was opened by Britain navy without permission to look for an American’s Ships. However, America was neutral. Despite the protest, Britain went ahead, and later on, they resorted to impressments, where they forced Americans sailor into the Army. President Thomas Jefferson issued the Embargo of 1807 as a general embargo, restricting trade to take place with all foreign nations, specifically Britain and France. The president was hoping that the act would devastate the economies of Britain and Frances since they were unable to receive goods from America. Nevertheless, the embargo did precisely the opposite, and as a result, the economies of France and Britain continued without any issue. On the other hand, the economy of the US was devastated, and as a result, a higher level of joblessness, bankruptcy, and loss of profits was witnessed.

War of 1812

Factors such as war Hawks, lack of respect between the foreign nations, impressment, and troubles with native Americans. Due to the expansion of Americans, the fight between the Americans and Native Americans continued. Shawnee warrior and his brother started to unite the Native Americans as a way of stopping Americans' expansion. The US was willing to take care of Native Americans since the risk was not significant. Nevertheless, Britain providing aid to the Native Americans and provided them with guns and shells, which m it too hard for the Americans. At the same time, the war Hawks began to take the lead in Legislature and favored going to war with Britain since Britain lacked respect for America. After the war ended, there was an observation that America needed to improve the conveyance system and economic independence.

Consequences of The Industrial Revolution

Emergence of the Middle Class

Due to the decrease in prices in goods and the efficient production of products, individuals could afford to buy more of the goods and have some money left over. The middle class was made up of accountants, clerks, managers, and any individual who had a decent job at that time. The production of goods and services enlarged exponentially, where more companies were built, and efficient machines were invented. Significantly, transportation and communication also improved where transportation of products used to take weeks or months changed to take days with roads, canals, steamboats, and railroads.


Industrial Revolution led to an increase in cities. In pre- Industrial society, 80% of individuals lived in rural areas since people moved from the countryside, small towns become big cities. By 1850, Great Britain lived in the cities than in rural areas and other nations such as Europe, North American also experienced the growth of cities. The procedure of urbanization inspired the booming industries by focused workers and factories together, and new industrial towns became a source of wealth to the countries. However, urbanization had adverse properties since the whole working-class neighborhoods were broken, crowded, dirty, and polluted.

Increase in Technology

As the late technology increased, farming was efficient, which lead to farmers yielding more crops than ever before and, as a result, a surplus of food. There was death due to hunger since food was plenty and, therefore, an increase in population.

Public Health and Life Expectancy

Due to overcrowding, in the cities, there was poor hygiene and mostly medieval medical remedies, which contributed to feeble public health for the common of English people. This contributed to the spread of diseases because of the densely packed and poorly made neighbors. The cities witnessed muddy roads. House was built touching each other with no ventilation, and some homes lacked sewages.

Comprehensive Final Exam (25% Of Your Final Grade)

Throughout the semester, we have seen various ideas about how people (usually men, rarely women) can find fulfillment and happiness in life. Compare and contrast the ideas about the nature and goal of human accomplishment in Plato’s Symposium, Sallust’s Catiline, and Shelley’s Frankenstein, and discuss what this might tell us about the societies of classical Greece, Republican Rome, and the nineteenth century

The Ideas of Plato, Montaigne, and Shelley About the Nature and Goal of Human Fulfillment

The manner in which Plato uses deductive logic to express his opinion permits him to fully develop his ideas on the quality and purpose of personal satisfaction. He starts with the concept of ultimate “Maker of the bed” that was quickly accepted by the majority of an audience. On the other hand, Shelley’s plan on the nature and goal of human fulfillment is more straight forward as compared to that of Plato. Plato observed human beings as inherently usual, social soul troubled by incarceration within their physical bodies. According to him, the soul or mind gain acquaintance of the forms as different from the senses. On the other hand, Shelley invokes the nature and goal of human fulfillment as a sort of Supreme metaphor for beauty, expression, and creativity. Significantly, Frankenstein points out that human nature will lead to eminent and eventual downfalls of species.

In the society of Classical Greece, Republican Rome, and the nineteenth century this tells us that modern democracy should be practiced. Due to the dominant influence on the Rome empire and the foundations of western civilization. Through this, the goal and the nature of human fulfillment will be met. Through this, there will be a clear understanding of the fundamental human rights as freedom of speech, religion as well as the right to equal protection under the law as compared to the 19th century.

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Enlightenment: European Reason Movement of 17th & 18th Centuries - Essay Sample. (2023, Aug 02). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/enlightenment-european-reason-movement-of-17th-18th-centuries-essay-sample

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