1.1 Destination Marketing Organizations
One of the most important factors in joint destination marketing, especially in marketing tourism, is the formation of destination marketing organizations (Nguyen & Pearce, 2015). As pointed out by D'Angella and Frank (2008), a destination marketing organization is important in the optimization of the rewards of the stakeholders and at the same time minimizing all the involved risks. Naipaul, Wang and Okumus (2009) add another perspective by opinionating that it is important to establish regulations that guide the marketing organizations practices and any cooperation for tourism success between different states. D'Angella and Frank (2008) believe that some of the advantages of the formation of destination marketing organizations include synergies, coherence among the different destination's firms regarding tourism activities, the promotion of activities within the regions, high occupancy tourist rates, economies of scales and improved economy.
Nguyen and Pearce (2015) however argue that the formation of destination marketing organizations has many challenges. Neighboring patterns can be a major source of tourism business but joining forces is challenging mostly because of mistrust. According to Fyall (2012), destination-marketing organizations have several challenges and constraints. Some of the constraints include mistrust and suspicion among collaborative partners; the inability of stakeholders to work together due to excuses of political, economic or administrative nature; and particular stakeholders fail to recognize the real value of collaboration and remain closed to the benefits of working together. These inhibitors to collaboration have been supported by other studies from different perspectives such as Naipaul, Wang, and Okumus (2009) and Bramwell and Medeiros (2002). These challenges raised by Fyall (2012) and Naipaul, Wang, and Okumus (2009) when it comes to establishing cooperations are similar to those raised by Nguyen and Pearce (2015).
D'Angella and Frank (2008) also admit that there are challenges regarding the formation of destination marketing organizations. They however provide solutions by emphasizing that the success of such cooperations depends on the inclusion of the different institutions, involving the destination firms in the development of new tourism activities, and having a capable team that has vast experience in the tourism field. Priority areas for Macao's participation in the development of the Great Bay include creating cooperation and the opening of the Great Bay. The regional cooperation is enhanced by promoting adequate diversification of the economy through multilateral cooperation. The success of the Macao-Zhuhai cooperation is on combining efforts for a good environment to live in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao, negotiating fair treatment of Macao residents in the three regions of Greater Bay.
1.2 Regional Tourism Cooperation
According to Naipaul, Wang, and Okumus (2009), through the collaboration of neighboring destinations with limited tourism products and resources when it comes to marketing their destinations, the involved states will be beneficial. According to Zema (2014), inter-destination cooperation promotes and enhances the collaboration of destinations thus increase the competitive advantage. The establishment of such cooperations guarantees success but the will of the decision makers is necessary for the success of the parties involved. This idea is seconded by D'Angella and Frank (2008), Bramwell and Medeiros (2002), Naipaul, Wang, and Okumus (2009), and Nguyen and Pearce (2015). Zema (2014) lists some of the different forms of inter-destination cooperation such as the nature of tourism product, the customers' perception of tourism regions, the international character of cooperation, and the number of cooperating destinations among others. Inter-destination cooperation embraces many different actions of different stakeholders to achieve differentiated aims. It is important to establish regulations that guide any cooperation for tourism success between different states.
The formation of partnerships among neighboring destinations is important in terms of the enhancement of product portfolio, efficiency, and reducing costs. Nonetheless, there are some challenges that may arise in establishing and sustaining long-term partnerships. Some of these challenges include limited resources, different priorities, and varying marketing visions and directions. Baidal (2004) also add that these partnerships not only take time but also effort. Informal working relationships are important in the formation and maintenance of such partnerships. Amin and Thrift (as quoted by Dredge and John, 2003) add that there are four factors that make these arrangements successful. First, there is a need to have an inter-institutional interaction and synergy. Secondly, there has to be a common industrial purpose, third, there needs to be a collective representation by many bodies, and lastly, there needs to be shared cultural norms and values. Most of these values are similar to the ones cited by Bramwell and Medeiros (2002).
Bramwell and Medeiros (2002) add that that these partnerships are significant in bringing together stakeholders who have the local geographical, national, and regional interests at heart. There are many benefits of socioeconomic and political nature because of the collaborative arrangement and joint working. Jackson (2006) concurs by saying that the cutting-edge development of its productive structure, it is characteristic of technological innovation engine and economic opening are great advantages. In addition, the exchange of people is efficient and the integration of infrastructure is of a high standard. Different government organizations in different spatial scales each with its functions need to work together in partnership arrangements of tourism developing. One of the reasons why such collaborations are important is that they lead to pooling of resources, capital, and expertise. Selin (2000) as cited by Bramwell and Medeiros (2002) also agree since they believe that tourism partnerships intended to promote and enhance sustainable development vary according to size, scale, the locus of control, and legal basis. These regional tourism partnerships are important since they bring together local, regional, and national interest within a regional development perspective.
However, for D'Angella and Frank (2008), the success of such cooperations depends on the inclusion of the different institutions, involving the destination firms in the development of new tourism activities, and having a capable team that has vast experience in the tourism field. Zemla (2014) introduces another important perspective by stating that boosterism, which is the most dominant approach, is based on an uncritical analysis of tourism, identifying its positives while ignoring the negative environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspect. However, Bramwell and Medeiros (2002) state that there are several challenges regarding these partnerships and cooperations. One is that the involvement of different diverse actors in the decision-making process and regular meetings is not only time-consuming and hectic but also complex. Groups, states, or nations involved may refuse to work together fearing that this reduces their influence or power.
Baidal (2004) agrees with Wang (2009) and Medeiros and Bramwell (2002) by stating that there is need for progressive integration of planning into management, methodological progress and problems, development of legal instruments, progress in the planning of scale articulation, and carrying out integrated, sectorial and coordinated tourism planning. Tourism planning establishes a progressive spatial spread of tourism and is highly beneficial to the economy. Medeiros and Bramwell (2002) add another perspective to it, arguing that both sides have to be aware and recognize the need to seize the cooperation opportunity well to ensure that the cooperation of the two territories could, under existing bases, progress and, in particular, promote the more elementary regional cooperation for a more oriented towards industry and infrastructures across borders and from there to expanding to social services. In the framework of the Greater Bay Area Development Plan, Zhuhai and Macau should make efforts to enhance partnership and achieve success in the development of tourism businesses. The Macao-Zhuhai Cooperation can strengthen partnership and increase competitiveness in the market. Nguyen and Pearce (2015) are of the opinion that such cooperations will also extend regional cooperation to other areas, including social services for the benefit of the population.
Following the suggestions of Bramwell and Medeiros (2002), a collaboration between Macao and Zhuhai can lead to a win-win effect where they get international recognition. Zhuhai can strengthen partnership and cooperation to increase competitiveness in the market. Tourists are currently looking for new forms of tourism that meet their new needs, which is giving rise to the appearance of new forms of tourism. These typologies are leading to the creation of new tourism products, which seek to improve the tourist offer of the destination, but also generate economic resources in local communities, and help to conserve natural areas.
Naipaul, Wang and Okumus (2009) provide another perspective by opinionating that it is important to establish regulations that guide any cooperation for tourism success between different states. The rewards of such cooperation include synergies, coherence among the different destination's firms regarding tourism activities, the promotion of activities within the regions, high occupancy tourist rates, economies of scales and improved economy. According to Nguyen and Pearce (2015), the fulfillment of this objective requires the promotion of ecological development. In addition, the Great Bay Area, endowed with a convenient geographical situation, good climatic conditions, extensive coasts, and forest resources, has notable advantages in terms of green development.
According to Baidal (2014) there are numerous advantages of cooperation and this is reflected in the Bay case and Wang (2009) further state that the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Grand Area will not only facilitate the integration of Hong Kong and Macao with the mainland, but will also take advantage of the tremendous opportunities offered by the reform and opening of the Chinese mainland, and will drive the economic development of the entire Pearl River Delta region to a new height. According to Chancellor and Cole (2008), this global development and innovation base integrates knowledge innovation, high technology, high-level manufacturing, and global factory upgrades.
1.3 Collaboration Linkages and Benefits
According to Lue and Fesenmaier (1993), the linkages between destinations should be considered and this helps in maximizing the financial returns for the parties involved. An analysis and investigation of the spatial patterns of tourists' travel provide a foundational basis for functionally defining a tourism region. As pointed out by Naipaul, Wang, and Okumus (2009), the concepts of cooperation and development, as well as the creation of a joint brand and shared markets result in the promotion of interaction and cooperation among members. This is achieved through the integration of resources, the promotion of image and joint marketing, mutual visits and collaboration among members, thus building a set of tourist destinations of worldwide importance. According to Yang, Fik, and Zhang (2013), when tourists make decisions on where they will visit, they...
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