Climate Change: An Annotated Bibliography Example

Date:  2021-06-21 14:03:06
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Sewanee University of the South
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Annotated bibliography
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Brooke, John. "Climate, Human Population and Human Survival: What the Deep Past Tells Us about the Future." Origins, Vol. 5, Issue 8, May 2012.

According to Brooke (para 3), Humanity has been around for a very long time, but in only a few centuries we have grown to vast numbers and transformed our world in unprecedented ways. Human beings are seriously destroying the earth system that supports them by engaging in activities which are causing climate change. Historically, overpopulation did not pose a problem for human survival as is the case today since the people did so much to preserve their environment (Brooke para 6). This author argues that there are changes in climate such as extreme heat or extreme cold which impact the health of human beings. When there is so much heat, individuals in the affected regions tend to be predisposed to conditions which eventually cause illnesses. For example, when there is too much heat, the heat waves may cause dehydration and even skin cancer to those who live in the region. On the other hand, when there are floods, waterborne diseases become more common. Treating and controlling such outbreaks is usually quite difficult, which is why some succumb to their deaths.

Also, climate change triggers conditions which further make it worse for human beings. For instance, it triggers droughts and even impacts the economy. When there are droughts, human beings lack food and water. These factors are important for the survival of human beings as they are basic needs. On the other hand, once these resources become limited, prices increase drastically due to the high demand. As a result, this affects the global economy since everything becomes expensive due to the shortage. Human beings, thus, have a difficult time purchasing their basic needs.

Mills, James N., et al. "Potential Influence of Climate Change on Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases: A Review and Proposed Research Plan." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 118, no. 11, Nov. 2010, pp. 1507-1517. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901389.

Mills et al. (1507) note that "The concept that weather and climate are linked to the incidence of infectious diseases in humans has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates." Climate change indeed impacts the health of human beings through various ways. For example, the rising temperatures are more likely to increase the incidence of heat-related mortality. This means that many individuals are at risk of losing their lives as a result of diseases caused by so much heat. In addition, climate change causes the further spreading of drought which ends up in food and water shortages. Human beings need these products for their survival as the body cannot do without food or water. On the other hand, when heavy precipitation occurs, flood-related injuries increase hence posing a threat to human life (Mills et al. 1507). In addition, there are high chances of water and food borne diseases occurring. Respiratory and skin diseases may also occur when people are forced to live in such conditions. Therefore, survival of human beings is impacted because their health is put at risk of being affected by many factors. There are also diseases which are acquired from animals and can be fatal to human beings. Such extreme weather conditions are not good for human survival due to the risks they present regarding disease transmission which also occurs from other animals to humans.

Petersen, John L. "A New End, a New Beginning: Prepare for Life as We Don't Know It." Futurist, vol. 43, no. 5, Sep/Oct2009, pp. 25-28.

Peterson (26) states that a big change is expected to start soon as multiple global trends, which have the capability of impacting human life, are now converging. All these are linked to the issue of climate change. For instance, human beings rely greatly on their financial systems. Unfortunately, as a result of climate change, the global system is now collapsing. The products which were being used to enhance the economy are now running dry, as is the case with petroleum. Peterson (26) also notes that there are regions experiencing increased heat while others are experiencing so much cold. These irregularities are capable of triggering agricultural problems, natural disasters, and even a failed economy. These aspects are paramount for human survival as they determine whether there will be enough food, or if the health will be maintained. Unfortunately, as many items become scarce, the economy is also impacted such that the little that there is becomes very expensive. Increased energy costs further impact the cost of other basic products which human beings need for their survival.

Tong, Shilu, et al. "Managing and Mitigating the Health Risks of Climate Change: Calling for Evidence-Informed Policy and Action." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 124, no. 10, Oct. 2016, pp. A176-A179. doi:10.1289/EHP555.

According to Tong et al. (176), Global climate change not only affects ecosystems, but events attributable to climate change such as heat waves, floods, droughts, and bushfires can influence socioeconomic development. These factors are important for the survival of human beings, especially because they affect health and sustainable development. These authors acknowledge the fact that climate change is already affecting the health of humans, and that it will continue to increase over the years. These disturbances that occur in the environment, the ecology, and social living conditions are bound to bring about long-term health hazards to human beings (Tong et al. 176). It is as a result of these impacts on the health of human beings that suggestions have been made to improve the situation.

These authors suggest that there is a need for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with an application of technology (Tong et al. 177). This will limit the rise in temperatures of the globe to <20 Celsius. It will be the same to what was relative to the pre-industrial levels. Since the impacts of warming are already being experienced in specific regions, it is important to ensure that the vulnerable communities are presented with cost-effective health-protective adaptive strategies. Tong et al. (177) note that most of the temperature-related mortality is linked to cold. This is why they note that, even though it is important to develop and implement public health interventions for milder yet significant temperature excursions and increased temperature variability, the relevant authorities need to effectively prepare for seasonal changes. This means that they should be prepared for both kinds of extreme temperatures which can either be the cold or high heat (Tong et al. 177). This will help in dealing with mortality. As climate change continues, it is expected that the frequency, intensity, duration and even extent of geographic weather events will increase. Therefore, human beings should be prepared to deal with cyclones, heat waves, floods, droughts, and even bushfires as these are the events which may impact survival.

World Health Organization (WHO). Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses. Health Organization, pp. 1-322.

According to WHO (1), the long-term good health of populations depends on continued stability and functioning of the ecology and the physical systems. Human actions are amplifying the natural greenhouse effects as they are not careful with their choice of activities. This is why so many natural disasters are occurring and causing so many deaths. Events such as heat waves, windstorms and tropical cyclones, droughts, hurricanes, and even forest fires are caused by climate change (WHO 95). As a result, human beings are forced to struggle to survive through poverty as the population growth exceeds what the earths resources can sustain. In addition, human beings are becoming predisposed to so many health conditions due to these natural disasters. This book highlights the same issues as mentioned by other authors. It states that human beings suffer from communicable diseases which tend to worsen during such extreme temperatures. In addition, the presence of floods magnify the chances of water-borne illnesses such as cholera. In most cases, these illnesses are quite difficult to manage before many people have lost their lives. In other cases, illnesses are triggered by factors which cannot be controlled by humans, and the only measures they can take is to try and keep the problem at bay. For instance, heat waves cause dehydration and a lot of harm to human beings. However, once it starts, there is no way that human beings can control it.


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