Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy: Impact on Patients and Diabetes Management - Paper Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1024 Words
Date:  2024-01-29


Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy helps manage cardiovascular diseases in the spectrum as a whole (Asegaonkar, 2016). Administering drug therapy helps save lives or at least lengthens the life of a person. Patients respond differently to drug therapy according to age and gender, whereby cardiovascular is the leading disease that causes death among US patients. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is the best guide that provides practical clinical practices among the upcoming therapeutics. The risk of death has reduced with the coming of measures to prevent and treat (Kim & Lee, 2020). Tobacco can be used to prevent CVD rather than using pharmacotherapy, which makes the process cost-effective, also using both lipid-lowering and lowering blood pressure medication acts as preventive measures and is more so cost-effective compared to other preventives. We chose to analyze the age of 60-65 males to consider the risk associated with the cost-effectiveness of the measures we wanted to use since this age group has the highest risk of getting CVD.

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The Effect of Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Process

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics drugs affect diabetes because of the changes in the blood flow, gastric, and muscle flow due to the regulation of enzymes in drug biotransformation and excretion of nephropathy (Malesker, 2008). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is prevalent among children and adolescents since it's associated with obesity and young females since exercise is always done. It is not easy to determine the effect of pharmacokinetics among youths because of fatty liver and obesity (Kumthekar, 2010). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly increasing among children and minor youth, which are associated with overweight in the United States, resulting in insulin resistance in the body. On the other hand, children who were not breastfed or even had low birth weight are always at risk of contracting type 2 diabetes mellitus. For instance, the study carried out in a Swedish case study showed that people with low birth weight are at high risk of getting type 2 diabetes mellitus at the age of 60 years (Malesker, 2008). Pharmacokinetics is circumvented through intramuscular administration of drugs whereby the dose required is much smaller, and it should also be approached with caution because its effect is so dangerous with geriatric patients, and distribution of the drug to peripheral is highly affected by aging due to a decrease in the lean body mass. The pharmacodynamic effect is set when the drug gets to the target tissue, which can be presynaptic or postsynaptic.

Impact of Drug Therapy on the Patient's

We use hydralazine in the treatment of high blood pressure whereby it is used to relax the blood vessels if the blood pressure if not treated can cause more damage to the body's organs for instance; the heart, blood vessels, and other parts including the kidney (Malesker, 2008). Patients who have diabetes are more likely to get hypertension depending on the age, gender, race, or even sex of a person. A person's lifestyle acts as a major control of high blood pressure whereby patients with diabetes are at high risk of getting hypertension and complications, and lifestyle can be used to prevent and delay hypertension with pharmacologic therapy (Malesker, 2008). If, during pregnancy, the fetus is at risk, hydralazine should be used to treat diabetes. Atenolol is a widely used drug to treat hypertension. However, a relationship shows the concentration of Atenolol plasma and that of drug-induced in fasting glucose together with triglyceride levels (Xu & Rajaratnam, 2017). We carried out a study in Florida, Atlanta, and Georgia with patients living with hypertension from the age of 18-65 and who were engaged in a pharmacogenomic test of Antihypertensive Response(PTAR) where Atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide were given as a monotherapy to determine which genes are associated with antihypertensive response whereby the study showed out that cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus or type 1 or 2 the blood glucose were above 126mg/dl, the concentration of serum creatine was above 1.5mg/dl for younger people while 1.4mg/dl for elderly (Xu & Rajaratnam, 2017).

How to Improve the Patient Drug Plan

We can use the old antihypertensive drug verapamil to minimize the required and hypoglycemic insulin for adults with type 2 diabetes (Xu & Rajaratnam, 2017). Verapamil therapy is an outstanding therapy to preserve beta-cell function and the patient's insulin production in adults with diabetes type 2. Administering a daily dose of verapamil to patients with diabetes helped improve beta-cell functions, reducing the need for insulin therapy and leading to fewer cases of patients with low blood sugar. When taking hydralazine, the doctor is supposed to give one guideline on when to use since this drug is not supposed to be used together with another drug, though in some cases, one can be advised to take two medicines, for instance, using Dovetailed and any other medicine is not recommended (Saely, 2019). Other medicines should not be used around or even at the time of eating one's food because interaction may occur, and if used together, the doctor has to advise you or change the dose or give special instructions on the food intake, alcohol, or tobacco.


In conclusion, pharmacology with an ant-hyperglycemic agent is necessary to treat children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also found out that T2DM in children is due to insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities, hypertension, and acanthosis nigricans. Changing lifestyle can be a major factor in reducing T2DM, like avoiding the intake of calories and engaging in physical exercise. T2DM is at a peak in children during mid-puberty due to the increased secretion of growth hormones.


Asegaonkar, S. B. (2016). Cardiovascular risk stratification among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Disorders & Control, 3(4).

Kim, J. D., & Lee, W. (2020). Prevention of type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy, 2(3), 63.

Kumthekar, A. (2010). Pharmacotherapy of type II diabetes. Practical Management of Diabetes, 41-41.

Malesker, M. A. (2008). Optimizing Antidiabetic treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular comorbidities. Pharmacotherapy, 28(2), 193-206.

Saely, C. H. (2019). Metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The ESC Handbook on Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, 49-58.

Xu, J., & Rajaratnam, R. (2017). Cardiovascular safety of non-insulin pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 16(1).

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Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy: Impact on Patients and Diabetes Management - Paper Sample. (2024, Jan 29). Retrieved from

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