Paleo-Indians are the first Native American people to occupy and live in America. They lived in America during the last stage of the last glacial episode and the early part of the changing environment and climate that started to look like the modern climate. They occupied Indiana where they lived in small groups of related individuals and are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna to settle in America. They moved from place to place hunting large animals like elephants and gathering plants as their subsistence food. They moved on foot or used boats along the coastline following animals that also migrated due to the ice-free corridors created along the Pacific coast (Anderson, 2018). The Paleo-Indians had well-made stone tools made out from stones called chert. The tools included long spear points that were used for hunting and engraving items and cutting and scraping instruments, some tools such as the spear and cutting tools were called Hi-Lo, Clovis, and quad, Plainview, Cumberland, and agate basin point. Hunting and gathering were their main economic activity. Less evidence of their lives was left behind and could only be found on near water sources and surroundings. Other evidence was the chert, the tool that they used. Archeologists have discovered some of their evidence in places such as Alaska, western Alberta, central Texas and the old crow flats in Yokun (Keeley, 2018).
After the Paleo-Indian period, the archaic-Indians came into existence. The archaic had improved tools and techniques. Increase in population led to the use of new tool types and food preparation practices. Some characteristics were similar in all groups in the archaic period. Some included the use of new types of spear point and knives with various notches. Some of the projectile points that were used during the archaic period include Kirk, Thebes McCorkle, Godar, Matanzas, Riverton, and LeCroy (Arkush, 2000). The archaic also used ground stone tools such as the stone axe grinding stones and woodworking tools for hunting and gathering. The grinding stones were used to crush grind and pound nuts, berries, seed and other plant food for consumption. They were hunters and gatherers of wild plants and animals. They moved around the environment by season, and they schedule their movement to coincide with the appearance of food like fish deer and wild seeds. During this period, the spear thrower was used. The spear thrower consisted of a shaft with handle weighted for balance to the ground and a hook at the end. A spear was fitted into the hook and thrown with the spear thrower shaft. Some activities and pieces of evidence were found during the archaic period was about to end. Shreds of evidence such as human burials with the red pigment coloring remains were found on the graves. Burial mounds appeared on their settlements (Pitblado, 2000). Their culture became more different from one another. More types of artifacts were used, and their settlement became permanent. They settled along the large rivers where they discarded mussel shells. These sites were called mounds even though they are not constructed burial mounds.
From the evidence left by both the Paleo-Indian and the archaic, the way they lived, made artifacts and clothed themselves, modern people have developed more and adopt some of their culture such as the movement in search of food for survival. It shows that the Paleo/archaic period consisted of people who embraced their culture.
Anderson, M. K., & Keeley, J. E. (2018). Native Peoples' Relationship to the California Chaparral. In Valuing Chaparral (pp. 79-121). Springer, Cham.
Arkush, B. S., & Pitblado, B. L. (2000). Paleo archaic surface assemblages in the Great Salt Lake desert, northwestern Utah. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 12-42.
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