In terms of rating of knowledge, the peer leaders were rated to have a higher knowledge, attitude, personal skills and the perceive similarities. It was also observed that the peer leaders had improvements in knowledge, asthma control, self-efficiency and the quality of life. The teenagers who took part in the program in general showed great satisfaction and saw the need of the program in dealing with asthma.
Though the study was successful, there were some challenges experienced. The peer led data that was used for evaluation was collected in large quantities to minimize chances of being bias. Due to this, it was hard to identify the specific adolescent who did not respond positively to the inception of the program. The fact that most of the peer leaders were female and whites, this diminished the sense of similarity of the nonwhite male participants in the program. The study conducted proves that peer leaders have an effect in adolescent than adult leaders.
Impacts of asthma
In their article negative impacts of asthma on patients in different age groups (2015), Chiang, Huang, hen and Ly evaluated the impacts of asthma in Brazil in people aged 12-17 years, 18-40 years and above 41 years.
400 Patients diagnosed with asthma from Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba and Salvador were taken as a sample of study. The patients were given standardized questionnaires to fill and also were interviewed face-to-face. For patients who were unable to feel the questioners had their parents or guardian helping filling them.
The questions mainly asked on asthma control methods, the number of times they have been hospitalized, the number of times they had visited hospital emergency rooms and the number of times they have been absent from school. The questions also asked on how asthma has affected the quality of their life, sleep and leisure. This data was collected by grouping people into respective age groups.
The response we acquired from Have you had at least one episode of server attack that prevented you from playing in the last one year? were from patients that were significantly higher than 12-17 years of age. They all responded affirmatively. Other affirmative responses we got were from, Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last one year? 30% of patients aged 12-17 reported that they were unable to be physical due to the effects of the attack. 14% of patients above 41 years of age reported that their social life was limited by asthma.
The results of this study showed that asthma affected patients between the ages of 12-17 years more than the adult patients. This could have been attributed due to poor treatment and medicinal adherence. From the study, its obvious that young patients are affected more by the problem of adherence to medicine. Its necessary that adolescents are counselled for them to better the understanding of the disease they suffer from. A program that involves psychotherapy should be also be made available for teenagers for them to improve in their treatment plan and adherence for a quality life.
More specific approaches need to be put into place to make adherence among young patient to improve. Asthma can lead to limited participation in sporting activities in teenagers and increased school absenteeism.
The study however experienced some problems as the data used in the study were not obtained from medical reports rather they were obtained from self-report. The fact that parents and guardians completed questioners of the people who were unable to fill them was a problem as their feedback was not well represented in the research.
Effects of self-management asthma education program
A study conducted by Chiang LC, Huang JL, Yeh KW, Lu CM was conducted with an aim of comparing the effectiveness of two asthma educational programs.
One of the programs was self-management asthma with an aim to change the factors that influence the previous needs of assessment in Taiwan. The other program based on the regular outpatient asthma education with an aim to; know and compare the asthma knowledge, perceived effectiveness, self-efficiency, children cooperation and the doctor-patient relationship.
The research also aimed at comparing the differences in drug use, medication utilization, server asthma attacks, sings of an attack, school absenteeism and exercise ability before education. Parents of asthmatic patients were recruited in a hospital and given registration numbers. Measures were collected from parents by means of a sample questioner and charts.
There was a significant improvement in asthmatic knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness, childrens cooperation and self-management behaviors. After six months of follow up, the experimental group was better than the control group in all this. The control group and the experimental group registered a positive impact in the health outcomes. There was an average degree of drug use from 2.7 to 2.1. The number of visits also reduced significantly from 4.75 to 3.55 in six months for the experimental group and from 5.8 to 3.48 in the control group. The cases of severe asthma also reduced from 2.7 to 2.1. There was also a significant reduction in school absenteeism and signs of asthma. Exercise ability increased in the 6th month after the education
Theory-based educational program had a significant positive impact on the self-management behavior of patients. From this we conclude that altering with trends of the determinants indicates the educational effects that were sustained for the 3 months.
Chiang, L. C., Huang, J. L., Yeh, K. W., & Lu, C. M. (2004). Effects of a SelfManagement
Asthma Educational Program in Taiwan Based on PRECEDEPROCEED Model for Parents with Asthmatic Children. Journal of Asthma,41(2), 205-215.
Dinwiddie, R., & Muller,W. G. (2002) Adolescent treatment compliance in asthma, Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, 95(2), 68-71
Rhee, H., McQuillan, B. E., & Belyea, M. J. (2012). Evaluation of a Peer-led Asthma Self-Management Program and Benefits of the Program for Adolescent Peer Leaders. Respiratory Care, 57(12), 20822089. http://doi.org/10.4187/respcare.01488
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