Ix. Energy Strength of the Bond Between N-O in NO2 and the Strength of the Bond Between O-O in O2
From the table, each nitrogen-oxygen bond accounts for 201 kj/mol and each oxygen-oxygen bond accounts for 142 kj/mol. Calculating the bond energy we have: (2) nitrogen-oxide bonds (double bonds) at 201 kj/mol = 402 kj/mol
Also, we have (2) oxygen-oxygen bonds (double bonds) at 142 kj/mol = 284 kj/mol
The ozone is naturally formed in the stratosphere when high solar radiations breakdown O2 molecules causing the two atoms to separate. When a separated oxygen atom meets another O2 molecule, they combine to form the ozone, O3. The O3 uses the ultra-violet rays it absorbs from the sun to heat the stratosphere (Polvani, Waugh, Correa, & Son, 2011).
The higher one goes past the stratosphere, the hotter it becomes. This temperature profile makes extremely stable barometrical conditions. This is actually the inverse of the conduct in the troposphere, where temperatures drop with expanding elevation. Past a specific level into the atmosphere, there is inadequate ultra-violet light to separate oxygen further. In clean air, there is a harmony between the measure of ozone being created and decimated thus the aggregate levels remain steady. O3 is unstable with respect to O2 thus water vapor at lower atmospheric levels breakdown O3 molecules. The stratosphere is exceptionally dry hence the ozone layer stabilizes at the stratosphere and not the troposphere (Portmann, Daniel, & Ravishankara, 2012).
50 point problem
There is increasing proof of air pollutants particularly dust from interstate neighborhoods. The pollutants include black carbon, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxides. When released in the air, the pollutants end up in the houses of people near the interstate since they take time to disintegrate and breakdown. Hence, interstate neighborhoods have more dust. Fine dust is an example of a natural inorganic aerosol common in such neighborhoods and will most definitely affect most people. The air in the room contains less solar radiations that can breakdown the pollutant molecules hence they move as molecules and not atoms. For instance, due to low solar radiations, nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide from the interstates fails to break and separate into single atoms and they move as whole.
Using the Stock's Law to calculate the dust settling rate we have:
Stock's Law = PpDp2g18mwhere pp = density of particle, Dp = diameter of particle, g = gravity constant (9.807 m/s2) and = air viscosity (1.81 10-5)
Computing values in the formula we have;Settling rate = 1.5106mgL-1102m9.807m/s2181.8110-5m=4.5151012gm2s-1Concentration of aerosols = 1.26g p6103m9.807m/s2= 659.73 gm2s-130 point problem
Polvani, L. M., Waugh, D. W., Correa, G. J., & Son, S. W. (2011). Stratospheric ozone depletion: The main driver of twentieth-century atmospheric circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Climate, 24(3), 795-812.
Portmann, R. W., Daniel, J. S., & Ravishankara, A. R. (2012). Stratospheric ozone depletion due to nitrous oxide: influences of other gases. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 367(1593), 1256-1264.
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