Article Abstracts and References

Date:  2021-03-06 16:19:09
6 pages  (1595 words)
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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

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I, student name, do verify that I have not plagiarized or copied this work from another person and submitted it as my own work. Nevertheless, I acknowledge the ideas borrowed from the sources cited.

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Table of Contents

ARTICLE 1

Section 1: Library Research description

Source: HCT Libraries page >Databases>General Research>Academic Search Premier

Search terms: Spending Habits

Section 2: Article abstracts and references

Title: Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program.

Abstract

Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives are efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project before quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in some categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM-based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending.

Reference

Cavallo, D., Nich, C., Schepis, T., Smith, A., Thomas B. Liss, T., McFetridge, A., & Krishnan-Sarin, S. (2010). Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19(4), 335-342. doi:10.1080/1067828X.2010.502498

Section 3: Article research descriptions

Population

The agreement was attained from every high school participant from the age of 14 up to 17 years. Only those who were fascinated in taking part in the cessation study of smoking were given the opportunity to involve themselves. The other population includes those of the age 18 years and above who signed separate forms for approval. In general, the recruitment of adolescents was done through local high schools for taking part in the high school oriented study. This was conducted in the year 2010 at Yale University, New Haven, United States.

Research Approach

A quantitative approach was used for the study. Here individuals were included whose smoking habit for every day for the previous six months amounts to at least ten cigarettes.

Participant selection

The sample size of 38 adolescents smokers was used for the study. The selection of participants was done based on age, that is, the age ranging from 14 to 17 and the age of 18 years and older. The questionnaires in the form of information sheets were used as data collection methods and which were mailed to the respective parents of the students from schools that were to participate.

Main results

The main results revealed that taking part in the program of contingency management for the cessation of smoking did not result to high expenditure on cigarettes plus extra substances. The participation in the program might have created extra socially satisfactory expenditure.

Section 4: Article evaluation

Ranking: Good

The most important information provided in the article is that contingency management program has no significant relationship with a cigarette and other substance expenditure. This finding is important for my topic area in that it can be used to verify the cause of spending habits on cigarettes by adolescents. As a result, the information may be important for public policy in that the government through schools can promote contingency management on cigarette smoking cessation to improve the satisfactory level of social spending on cigarettes. Based on the finding, I would like to know if at all the issue of gender which is not mentioned in the article could affect the result of the study.

ARTICLE 2

Section 1: Library Research Description

Source: HCT Libraries page >Databases>General Research>Academic Search

Premier

Search terms: Spending Habits.

Section 2: Article abstracts and references

Title: Differences in Spending Habits and Credit Use of College Students.

Abstract

In a study of college students, affective credit attitude (feeling about using credit cards) and gender influenced college students' credit purchasing. Affective credit attitude predicted the purchase of clothing, electronics, entertainment, travel, gasoline, and food away from home. Females purchased clothing; males purchased electronics, entertainment, and food away from home. Gender was more influential in predicting financial management practices than was affective credit attitude, with female students employing a greater number of financial practices. A path analysis model showed gender differences in the relationship between financial practices, financial stress, affective credit attitude, and the number of credit cards with a balance.

Reference

Hayhoe, C., Leach, L., Turner, P., Bruin, M., & Lawrence, F. (2000). Differences in Spending Habits and Credit Use of College Students. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 34(1), 113-113.

Section 3: Article research descriptionsPopulation

The population was mainly college students from the age of 18 years and older. The selection of 500 students from every university was done to get the target population for the study. The total population under study was three thousand. This was carried out in the year 1997.

Research Approach

A quantitative approach was used for the study. This is because the variables used for analysis mainly dealt with the number of male or female students affected or not affected with the use of credit cards to purchase a different number of items.

Participant selection

The random method was used for the selection of participants who received questionnaire each. A total of 300 questionnaires were sent to them via e-mail. The sample size of 480 was used which equals to 16 percent of responses.

Main results

The major result showed that the issue of gender was extra influential in anticipating management practices of finance as compared to affective attitudes of credit. The female students use a higher number of finance practices than male students. Questionnaires were used for data collection methods.

Section 4: Article evaluation

Ranking: Better

The most important information provided by the article is that financial management practices are dependent on gender and hence the balance on credit cards. The findings in this article are important to my topic area since the issues of gender seem to influence the habit of spending as human wants seems to vary with gender. The information is thus important too for the professional practice as it can help academic and business researchers to appreciate the effects of gender plus affective attitude of credit on the purchase types made using credit cards hence can improve the research concerning credit behaviors and their impacts on either use or overuse. Based on the findings in the article, I would like to know whether the idea of gender and an affective credit card can give similar result if the study is to be conducted in a different environment apart from college or university.

ARTICLE 3

Section 1: Library Research Description

Source:HCT Libraries page >Databases>General Research>Academic Search Premier Search terms: Purchasing Habits

Section 2: Article abstracts and references

Title: Purchasing Habits of Senior Farmers' Market Shoppers: Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to understand fresh fruit and vegetable purchasing habits among senior farmers' market shoppers using the theory of planned behavior. A survey instrument was developed to collect information on seniors' fruit and vegetable purchasing habits. A convenience sample of seniors shopping at farmers' markets was employed. A total of 184 surveys were collected. Respondents were divided into two groups based on response to a question of whether they received Senior Farmers' Market Nutritional Program (SFMNP) checks: 35 were on the SFMNP and 149 were not. Results indicated attitudes, subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were all significantly correlated with intentions at the p < 0.01 level. Attitude had the strongest association with intentions (0.730), followed by PBC (0.666) and SN (0.587). Regression analysis was significant and explained 66% of the variance (F = 86.151, p < 0.001, adjusted R square = 0.656). Results indicated an attitude to be the strongest predictor of seniors' intentions to purchase more fresh fruits and vegetables at farmers' markets. Senior programs may find this information useful when promoting fresh fruits and vegetables for senior citizens. These findings may also benefit farmers' markets while promoting fresh fruits and vegetables.

Reference

Middleton, C., & Smith, S. (2011). Purchasing Habits of Senior Farmers' Market Shoppers: Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology & Geriatrics, 30(3), 248-260. doi:10.1080/21551197.2011.591269

Section 3: Article research descriptions

Population

The surveys were gathered from senior farmers at the markets of four farmers. The survey process was done at the Southern part of Illinois area in the early July of the year 2008.

Research Approach

The approach used the quantitative approach as the results were presented based on values of correlation and regression analysis at different levels of significance.

Participant selection

The survey method of data collection was used to select the participants. The study had interest on the assessment of only seniors who meets the requirement of SFMNP age. Consequently, the participants under the age of 60 years were not included.

Main results

The result showed that attitude had the strongest relationship with intentions, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norms in that order. Also, the attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of the intention of seniors to purchase extra fresh fruits and vegetables at the market of farmers.

Section 4: Article evaluation

Ranking: Good

The important information from the article is that the purchasing habits are affected by three variables namely attitude, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and subjective norms (SN) with attitude having the greatest influence and subjective norm having the least influence on the purchasing habit. The findings are important to my topic area in the sense that the habits of spending while buying fruits and vegetables can be determined by attitude, PBC, and SN. This information may be important also to the professional practice in those business professionals, and farmers can use it to promote the sales of fresh fruits plus vegetables. Nevertheless, I would like to know why the age of 60 and above is used to define senior farmers. This is because the result could as well change if the age of 55 and above is used or even when 65 years and above is used. It would be bett...

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