Do you know that there are many diseases in the world that some of the names we are unaware of? As the world evolves, many more diseases will be discovered. Diseases disrupt the normal functioning of a person's body as they cause pain, suffering, and discomfort. When the thought of having a disease crosses an individual's mind, fear is what comes next. Particularly, when someone has incurable diseases such as asthma, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, COCD, sickle cell anemia, and many more, they tend to feel like their world is crumbling down. The focus of the paper is on asthma as a disease. According to Alhassan et al. (2016), asthma is a lung disease, which occurs due to inflammation of the airways. As the author adds, asthma results in bronchial hyperresponsiveness and invalidated hindrance of air, which eventually causes symptoms such as breathlessness, chest congestion, wheezing sound and coughing, and a dramatic response to bronchodilator rehabilitation.
In asthma disease, there is a relationship between inherent predisposition as well as environmental exposures such as allergens and microbes. Anderson & Jackson (2017) affirm that many researchers have delved into the research on the inception and history of asthma. Amerman (2016) indicates that asthma was found in China during 2600BC. The author adds that the first person to use the term asthma was Hippocrates (~400 BC). Additionally, the author states that Asthma is a Greek word, which means "blow," or "wind." Furthermore, the author indicates that researchers termed asthma as a public health problem forty years ago. Asthma is a type of respiratory disease, which the exposure to allergens inhibits a person's capability to breath because it causes inflammation, smooth muscle spasm, a secretion of excess mucus (Amermman, 2016). Seemingly, the symptom of wheezing is an early indication that someone has asthma.
Asthma affects people of all ages. Alhassan et al. (2016) agree with the point as he articulates that the disease is one of the chronic illnesses that does not choose a person's age or ethnicity. As the author indicates, studies have revealed about 300 million people worldwide have the disease and estimate an increase in the number to 400 million by 2025. More so, the author estimates that asthma results in 250000 annual deaths globally. In America alone, more than 22 million people have asthma (Alhassan et al., 2016). The authors add that the current prevalence of asthma is 8.3% and the overall lifetime prevalence is 13%. As the author adds, in the United States, the current prevalence was high among subgroups such as black non-Hispanics at 11.9%, Puerto Ricans at 18.8%, and those who are below the poverty level at 12.4%. Besides that, the author avers that asthma is prevalent in children compared to adults with a rate of 9.3% and 8% respectively. Furthermore, the author asserts that more females than males have asthma at a rate of 9.5% and 7% respectively. However, the author mentions that in children, the gender predominance is the opposite as more boys have asthma compared to girls at a rate of 10% and 8.6% respectively. Also, the author points out that yearly, the United States government compute $18 billion in the cost of asthma annually.
Asthma affects various systems of the body. Apryl (2017) cites from the Center for Disease Control that an episode or asthma attack affects the respiratory, immune, and nervous system. As the author indicates, the respiratory system of an individual who has asthma is different from that person who does not have asthma because of the sensitivity. The author indicates that in a case where there is a trigger such as environmental irritants, the airways narrow down, which results in breathing difficulty. Moreover, as Apryl (2017) cites from the National Institute of Health, people with asthma have a sensitive immune system because environmental irritants affect them more compared to those who do not have the disease. More to the point, John Hopkin's University as cited by Apryl (2017) puts forward that asthma affects the nervous system tremendously. The author affirms that a growth factor in the nerve, which is the nervous system protein, increases the sensitivity to irritants for people who have asthma. Despite the issues mentioned above, asthma can result in a fatality.
There are many causes of asthma. Foremost, family history is the leading cause of asthma more than three times more as any other cause. Besides that, exposure to pollutants in the environment can cause asthma. Moreover, childhood obesity is a risk factor as it may result in asthma during adulthood. Also, infection by the syncytial virus during infancy is a risk factor for asthma. Besides that, most adults who have contracted asthma have the diseases due to occupational exposure. The bronchioles are the part of the respiratory system, which is affected by affected by asthma. Bronchioles are the small tubes in the lungs connect the bronchus to the alveoli. The bronchi are found in the both parts of the trachea. When the bronchi are affected, the exchange of gases in the trachea becomes disrupted, which eventually leads to breathing complications.
Some of the features to look out for in asthma include the nature, timing, triggers, symptoms, and response to treatment. Papi et al. (2018) articulate that there is no mode of standard when it comes to diagnosis of asthma. Usually, diagnosis considers symptoms and the limitation of airflow in the windpipe. The author articulates that some of the features of asthma might not be found in most patients because of the heterogeneous nature of asthma. Also, the author asserts that even though that is the case, the author states that the measurement of the lung function assesses the severity of reversibility and variability of airflow inhibition as well as helps to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. When measuring airflow, medical professionals use a spirometer.
Asthma is incurable. Nevertheless, treatment is necessary to keep the disease under control. Barisione, Baroffio, Crimi, & Brusasco (2010) affirm that the standard care for treating asthma is Beta 2-agonist. The authors indicate that the mode of treatment has been used alongside beta-2 receptors present in the airways. Beta-2 agonists improve the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (Barisione, Baroffio, Crimi, & Brusasco, 2010). The types of Beta-2 agonists are short-acting, which are used in therapy of bronchoconstriction, and the long-acting which are used in therapy for long-term. During treatment of asthma, some of the events include tremor, tachycardia, and arrhythmias. Besides the long and short-term treatments, some of the options available include anti-cholinergic agents and phosphodiesterase inhibitors.
Based on the research about asthma, it is clear that the disease is incurable, but it can be controlled with some of the treatments mentioned in the text. Besides that, people who have not acquired the disease can take preventive measures to ensure they do not contract the disease. Also, people who have asthma can proceed with treatment to ensure that their symptoms do not persist. Research indicates that environmental pollutants, childhood obesity, allergies, viral infections, occupational exposures and family history result in asthma. Overall, researchers have to ensure that delve into more research to discover more treatments for asthma and hopefully find a cure for it.
Alhassan, S., Hattab, Y., Bajwa, O., Bihler, E., Singh, A. C (2016) Asthma 39(2), 110-123 DOI: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000104
Anderson, H.M. Jackson D.J. (2017). Microbes, allergic sensitization, and the natural history of asthma. 17(2), 116-122. DOI: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000338
Apryl B (2017) What Body Systems Are Affected by Asthma? https://healthfully.com/bodysystems-affected-asthma-5554008.htmlAmerman, E. C. (2016). Human Anatomy and Physiology. Florida: Pearson Education Limited.
Barisione,G., Baroffio, M., Crimi, E., & Brusasco, V. (2010). Beta-Adrenergic Agonists.Pharmaceuticals, 3, 1016-1044; doi:10.3390/ph3041016
Papi, A., Brightling, C., Pedersen, S. E; Reddel, H. K. (2018). Asthma The Lancet; London.391(10122).
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