In the 17th and 18th century, British formed thirteen groups known as colonies on the east of North America which later became the United States of America. All colonies had something in common such as protestant who could speak English, legal and political systems among many others. However, the population of these colonies was growing at a high rate as from 1625 to 1775 the numbers elevated from twenty thousand to two million leading to the displacement of native Americans. During the 18th century, colonies were operating under mercantilism policy whereby the central government used the possession to favor the economy of the mother country which in this case was Britain. Ever since slavery was introduced during this period, the thirteen colonies resisted giving more control to countries such as London.
There was a high tension between thirteen colonies and Britain when Indian and French fought against France and its Indian allies on the period of 1754 to 1763. It is during this period, settlements stopped dealing with Britain directly and instead they worked with each other (Breen 197). The activities conducted among themselves cultivated a logic of shared American character which led to demands for the colonist to be protected saying that there was no taxation without representation. Due to objections with the British government, there was an American revolution as the colonies worked together to form a continental congress which started the American revolutionary war and declared independence in 1776.
When the war between Indian and French ended in 1763, North America colonist was pleased as they believed it was their right to be independent. However, to them being free meant enjoying God-given natural as well as series of other rights. Freedom was supposed to be accompanied with all good things in life. Thus, after securing their freedom from British, the colonies decided to establish a different set of orders and have a republic where offices are not inherited as the power would come from the citizens. There was a meeting of 27 delegates from nine colonies which gathered in New York City with the aim of answering a question in a resolution passed in 1765 (Breen 198). The Englishmen were only supposed to be taxed according to their agreement and the colonists elected were representatives to the provincial legislatures. However, in 1765, the parliament forced some new colonial excise taxes which were published in all publications available during that era.
The colonists decided to do more than pass resolutions so that they can protect their rights. They worked towards rejecting the Stamp Act which was petitioned by parliament, but it was unsuccessful. Additionally, nonimportation associations were organized severally to develop support amid unfavorably affected manufacturers of Great Britain by unconstitutional Stamp Act. Numerous occasion separated loyal resistance of 1765 from the independence choice. There was a second continental congress held in Philadelphia which was assumed to be the governing power of the thirteen colonies after war broke out at Concord and Lexington. Several events followed such as refusal of a king to react to a drafted appeal and his endorsement of a prohibitory demonstration colonial ships like those of enemies. It was later known that king had negotiated with the prince of German to collaborate and put down the rebellion.
Later in 1776, the United Colonies were approved by Congress to become independent States. Thomas Jefferson chaired a committee which spent several days editing text before recommending it to go and be printed by John Dunlap (Nakao 591). After the copies were printed by Dunlap broadside printing, the Congress ordered them to be sent to innovatory administrations of every state and continental Army commanding officers. Some states printed out additional copies that were distributed to local people to bring to their attention that the new America had an equal and separate station. Nevertheless, having independence did not mean that American rebellion was revolutionary. According to Thomas Paine explained that American independence depended on the establishment of a new government system. This led republic owing much to Thomas' argument in common sense that Britain's government honored, the two major errors that flawed unwritten constitution was hereditary and monarchy rule. Thomas explained that British freedom rests on republican part of its government which consists of House of Commons. It is then American realized they could stand on their own and govern its people with respect.
The American government primary characteristics evolved mainly on the state level through some written constitutions. The central government of the country also went under an analogous change since after 1st and 2nd continental congresses which were impermanent a permanent alliance became necessary. Therefore, Congress was obligated to appoint a committee of thirteen persons which was chaired by John Dickson with a duty of drafting plan of association. In 1776, a more finished version was submitted to Congress by committee but was sent to states government in 1777. The delegates started to design a new government which was based on 15 resolutions suggested by Virginia designation in the opening days of the tradition.
The Committee of Detail made a couple of substantive responsibilities regarding the Constitution's improvement (Nakao 592). The tradition itself rolled out additional improvements as it updated and advanced the record throughout the following a month and a half. At that point, it went to uniquely choose state recommending traditions that can support or dismiss the Constitution for individuals' sake. Individual societies saw much to like and much to fear in the structure of the constitution. It was more superior to anything in the Articles of Association, on the other hand, the new government proposed to weaken the essential rights for which Americans had fought for in a long and terrible battle with Britain. By the end of September in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, eleven countries had chosen to approve two more than the nine expected to place it into the impact; however, five of them similarly prescribed corrections. Just Virginia formally asked for that a Bill of Rights be included, yet each of the five requested changes following the Constitution's arrangements on the portrayal and an adjustment of the extensive burdening powers allowed by the Congress. Portrayal and tax collection remained the focal rights issues of the American Revolution.
The defenders of the constitution such as James Madison and George Washington resisted compromising with the government new taxing powers. Nevertheless, James argued that Federal Congress out of twelve amendments ten were approved by a requisite number of state legislatures. The individuals who had battled for the Constitution thought about the forces it conceded Congress and the points of confinement on control incorporated with the structure of the new administration were acuter for the continued existence of the nation and of the American flexibility than a deprived of physical boundaries to persecution (Wucherpfennig 882). Every one of the republics of past times had fizzled the American would take an example. The new country developed and succeeded under the Constitution, however simply after it had risen, worn out yet reigning, from the period battle with Britain did its forthcoming seems to be protected.
The southern seven slave states rebelled and developed a union which attacked Fort Summer causing civil war from 1861 to 1865. The allied defeat led to the abolishment of slavery as the voting rights were extended to slaves who were freed. The central administration stood significantly more grounded. However, the 14th Amendment of 1868 brought out clear duties of protecting rights of individuals in 1865 (Wucherpfennig 883). The white Democrats gained back their energy in 1877 on the South and after voting Jim Crow passed bills that kept racial power with the new constitution that anticipated poor whites and African Americans from excising their power of voting. The act continued until there were additions of rights in 1960 with the entry of government enactment to authorize protected rights were complete.
In conclusion, the thirteen colonies were groups formed by British on North America which later became the United States of America. However, during the war of Indian and French against France and its allies, great tension fall between these colonies. Thus, they decided to work together instead of facing Britain alone. The activities that followed made these colonies realize their potential and decided to fight for their freedom. According to British, democracy is when a person can enjoy natural gifts from God among many other rights. The colonists decided to do more than pass resolutions so that they can protect their rights. In 1776, the United Colonial states were declared as a free state. The southern seven slave states rebelled and developed a union which attacked Fort Summer causing civil war from 1861 to 1865 which led to the abolishment of slavery.
Breen, Timothy H. ""Baubles of Britain": the American and consumer revolutions of the eighteenth century." Colonial America and the Early Republic. Routledge, 2017. 197-228.
Nakao, Keisuke. "Expansion of rebellion: From periphery to heartland." Journal of Peace Research 52.5 (2015): 591-606.
Wucherpfennig, Julian, Philipp Hunziker, and LarsErik Cederman. "Who inherits the state? Colonial rule and postcolonial conflict." American Journal of Political Science60.4 (2016): 882-898.
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