This is a sociological paradigm related to the oppression issues dealing with class, race, and gender. Patricia Collins introduced this theory, and it enlightens people on how complex privileges operate on social systems and how they shape the lives of people. The privileges, in this case, are based on factors such as race, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or gender (George Mason University). These factors do not operate independently but are widely interconnected. Therefore, the society often has to understand the dynamics to understand how best this theory operates. For instance, many societies will rarely consider people as human beings. Instead, they are likely to describe them as a man, woman, or even a black person. This theory states that people will always be categorized based on a range of different factors.
In history, the discriminated groups have been the African Americans and other minor races. However, the modern world has a new type of discriminated persons who face several challenges in the society. This includes the LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer). According to this theory, people need to understand that there are two truths to the society: that privilege creates oppression and that all people occupy some statuses of privilege. Therefore, individuals and institutions contribute towards creating oppression and benefiting from the same. An example of such a situation is that of slaves and their masters. The masters were direct economic beneficiaries of the slavery system. Therefore, the masters had to find ways of maintaining that relationship.
Simone de Beauvoir and her contribution on Gender
Simone de Beauvoir was a known feminist thinker, and a novelist but her philosophical work made her more famous. She wrote the book The Second Sex from 1949, and this was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second wave of feminism. In this second wave of feminism, the main issues were workplace, sexuality, family, and reproductive rights among many others. Her book was based on how women would be considered as the other sex in society. This means that women were considered as second to men, and she used her writing skills and philosophical expertise to express the oppression of women in society. In her book, she states, One is not born, but rather becomes a woman. This statement meant that the roles of women were not made based on their biological features but the societal needs (Maguire). While considering her contribution in the modern world, it becomes understood that sex is a biological fact while gender is a social construct.
Beauvoir played a critical role in history in helping society understand the plight of the middle-class white woman. At the time, white women in American were most affected by the second sex theory and she used her philosophical expertise to trigger the second wave. After the second wave, the third wave came, and this focused on colored women, poor women, and the women living in developing countries. Therefore, the third wave considered all women in society regardless of their social and ethnic differences. Therefore, Beauvoir was a critical figure in ensuring women achieved their radical freedom. Her work laid the foundation for what many women enjoy today all over the world. She was mainly influential because she was a woman of many talents who used all her gifts to change how the society functions in an oppressive manner to women in general.
George Mason University. History of the Matrix. 2015. Website. 16 December 2015. <http://wmst.gmu.edu/center/publications>.
Maguire, Laura. Simone de Beauvoir. 11 April 2014. Website. 16 December 2015. <http://philosophytalk.org/community/blog/laura-maguire/2015/04/simone-de-beauvoir>.
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