This chapter will involve thoughtful discussion of the three specific objectives of the study including the impact of sexual orientation diversity, how formal and informal factors affect discrimination, and evaluation of queer theory's potential influence on heteronormativity.
4.1 The Impact of Sexual Orientation Diversity in the Hospitality Industry
Various studies have disclosed high rates of discrimination where sexual orientation groups get threatened in recruitment, monetary benefits, promotion and intimidation in the work environment settings (Badgett et al., 2007). One objective of the study, therefore, is to analyze the impact of sexual orientation diversity in the hospitality Industry. The increasing LGBT population in the United States of America is a crucial factor in the market. This is to enhance real business by attracting a more significant consumer population of LGBT individuals. Assumptions are proper sexual orientation diversity can result in saving costs due to low rate staff turnover by staff who are less stigmatized, and with fewer absence cases.
Companies who support sexual orientation diversity are more likely to perform better in business environments that those who oppose it. Encouragement of sexual diversity allows organizations to broaden their market strategies. Sexual orientation diversity is also likely to improve quality of personnel, shift towards diverse customers and promote invention. In contrast, several other researchers think that embracing diversity is a symbol of narrowly minded styles in the improvement of business as disagree with ideas that are moral and social justice (Karatas-Ozkan et al., 2015). While some people think that sexual orientation diversity would promote the success of a business, the idea is criticized by a proposal that LGBT diversity brings about enhancement of companies through ideas that are not morally right. Regardless of business self-interest, sexual orientation is essential for business, but maintenance of equality and social justice is also vital.
4.2 Examining how Formal and Informal Discrimination Affects LGBT's Decisions of Disclosure
Both formal and informal practices affect the decision of LGBT individuals to disclose their sexual identity. In most cases the victims are discriminated for their personalities hence would prefer not to reveal their identity. Studies show that stigmatization of LGBT individuals has not decreased. However, based on limited research has been done on the issue it proves that the victims face much discrimination at their workplaces. Some researchers such as; Gates and Viggiani (2014) claim sexual orientation disclosure causes heterosexual people at a workplace to regard themselves superior over the homosexual resulting in separating social classes. The LGBT market is increasing and entering all industries.
Discrimination of the people has been in all workplaces including the hospitality industry. Bias can be through formal as well as official communication. Precise perception involves the rejection of individuals in the recruitment of employees because of their sexual characters. On the other hand, informal discrimination includes verbal communication in a despising way, lack of reliability and recognition of LGBT people in workplaces by isolating them during meetings and in business decisions. Despite the limited research done, there is proof that discrimination causes people to be afraid to disclose their sexual identities (Anderson et al., 2008). As far as concealment of sexual identity is essential to avoid discrimination both formally and informally, the choices made have a negative impact on health and life balance of people. Therefore, it is vital for people to disclose their sexual identity and are accepted for their personalities.
4.3 Evaluation of Queer Theory's Potential Influence on Heteronormativity.
Query theory is adopted by individuals who allegedly criticize bias structures and power of heteronormativity protecting normality of Queer individuals (Giddings and Pringle, 2011). Researchers believe that queer theory may be a potential key to surpassing belief that sexuality has two aspects. There is evidence of the privileged status of heterosexuals in organizations. However, evidence shows that the heteronormative issue has remained unchallenged and imitation of bi-sexual is a regulating standard by which LGBT sexualities are criticized and disparagingly marked as 'abnormal.' Lack of utilization of queer theory in markets and workplaces including hospitality industries, it is difficult to predict the likely outcomes.
Query theory offers right solutions for prevention of LGBTs from being criticized and stigmatized in working environments. Queer theory forms a concept of heterosexuality as being an untouched ideal which regulates common operations, it is beneficial for studying the potential impact of diverse workforces in organizations, queries the idea of fixed identities and provides alternative ways of conceptualizing diversity measurements. There has been lack of utilization of the query theory in the hospitality industry. For effectiveness of the method in work environments, recommendations are that; it is essential to find out the most practical means of implementing the approach in business markets.
Anderson, M.Z., Croteau, J.M. and VanderWal, B.L. (2008) Models of workplace sexual identity disclosure and management: Reviewing and extending concepts. Group & Organization Management, 3 (5), 532-65. Available from: http://journals.sagepub.com [Accessed 1st October 2017]
Badgett, M.V.L., Ho, D., Lau, H. and Sears, B. (2007) Bias in the Workplace: Consistent Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute. Available from: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Badgett-Sears-Lau-Ho-Bias-in-the-Workplace-Jun-2007.pdf [Accessed 2nd October 2017]
Gates, T.G. and Viggiani, P.A. (2014) "Understanding lesbian, gay, and bisexual worker stigmatization: a review of the literature". International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 34 (5/6), 359-374. Available from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com [Accessed 4 October 2017]
Giddings, L.S. and Pringle, J.K. (2011) Heteronormativity at work: Stories from two lesbian academics. Women's Studies Journal, 25 (2), 91-100. Available from: https://library.aut.ac.nz [Accessed 4 October 2017]
Karatas-Ozkan, M., Nicolopoulou, K., Ozbilgin, M., Ozturk, M.B. and Tatli, A. (2015) Questioning impact: interconnection between extra-organizational resources and agency of equality and diversity officers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26 (9), 1243-1258. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com [Accessed 1st October 2017]
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