Teachers are an essential part of society. It is through them that knowledge and skill are passed to future generations. For this reason, teaching requires competence, proper classroom management, using workable teaching approaches, and substantial knowledge on areas of expertise. Children experience their learning through the guidelines provided by their teachers (Veziroglu-Celik & Acar, 2018). In education, children are meant to grow both academically and socially.
For this reason, educational approaches act as important guidelines against which teachers build their competence as they develop different aspects of their students. The different categories of educational approaches are meant to guide teachers to build an environment that facilitates learning, motivation, and development. An analysis of different educational learning methodologies will give insight into what method work best for a teacher and the students based on the goal of the class.
Direct Instruction (DI) in the education system of k-12 is a teaching method that focuses on the sequenced and incremental mastery of the capacity to understand the concept and apply the gathered knowledge in problems along identical lines. This method of learning often works for students that require declarative and procedural knowledge. Stockard and Wood, 2018, carry out quantitative research around DI in the education system of k-12. The purpose of the research is to determine the effectiveness of direct instruction curricula. The authors present a hypothesis that suggests that DI in the education system of k-12 eases student's understanding through well-designed instructions. It further suggests that the inability for students to perform is not inherently their fault; rather, the instructions given are difficult to understand. The goal of the research is to carry out a meta-analysis on literature reviews to establish the effectiveness of the method with pre-school students.
The dependent variable, in this case, is the effectiveness of the DI in the education system of k-12 methods, and the independent variable is different literature reviews. When analyzing the independent variable, the authors use methods such as statistical controls, norm comparisons, and control groups (Stockard et al. 2018). The indirect variable relates more to the current study since it gives a variety of sources against which DI in the education system of k-12 can be examined.
Methodology and Sample
The research uses the meta-analysis research design to analyze sample characteristics. The sample size design is meant to address literature published between 1966 and 2016. The data provided allows for the analysis of 328 students, 413 study designs, and approximately 4000 statistical results around the research (Stockard et al. 2018). Further, the design allows for the analysis of multiple academic disciplines. The results of the study are positively inclined towards the effectivity of DI in the education system of k-12.
The data exclusively dealt with secondary data in the education system of k-12. The lack of primary data fails to account for the current nature of the research method. The lack of evidence-based results deny the research a current basis of comparison. Additionally, the use of sources in the 1960s is irrelevant since the DI in the education system of k-12 approach has gone through numerous manipulations to fit the current education systems. The results of the research prove to align with the hypothesis; the framing of questions can affect the capacity of students to learn.
All human societies took a significant effort in ensuring the society remained education especially the system of education in America base on the system of k-12. Education is a means through which skills are taught to generations to ensure the continuity of a certain practice. It is important to note that education is the central reason for the survival of the human race. Philosophy of education is meant to give answers to the aims of education and the guiding ideas on the nature of education (Kumara, 2016). Under these questions, rights of students, prospects of parents, capacity of teachers to deliver, and educational efforts of institutions are addressed. It is through educational philosophy that curriculums are built and epistemology linked to the needs of students. Given these facts, there are multiple theories on the philosophy of education. The philosophies are relevant in creating multi-faceted personalities that can fit into social and professional society productively.
The results of a flipped-classroom based on the system of k-12, approach survey suggest that there is a lot to education apart from coming across theories and academic practice. Education is responsible for the development of societal norms. It allows people to interact, share new ideas, thus creating a society that accommodates different personalities, lines of thought, and economic and political views (Noddings, 2018). Education is also responsible for training people on professional prowess. For instance, modern societies have come up with educational institutions that teach specific skills that will be essential in an essential societal field.
The issue of women failing to pursue STEM professions is often associated with the issue of equity. There has been a culture that allocates genders to specific roles. This culture has spilled into the professional field. For this reason, women fail to pursue STEM professions due to social isolation from these fields. Although society in a progressive error, sexism still exists (Glass et al. 2013). The women that get professional positions in these fields are often meant to lessen occupational segregation.
For this reason, women are subjected continuously to stereotype threats from a young age, thus forcing more women to pursue professions that have long been perceived as feminine. Girls should be encouraged to view themselves as both complex and multi-faceted from the initial stages of education. Being complex and multi-faceted could be a basis against which the female students are made to understand that there are no limits to the number of courses that they could pursue. Introducing them to women that have made significant changes in STEM fields would be a means of changing the current perception that women are not made for STEM professions (Young et al. 2017). Once girls are freed from the perception of the inability to pursue STEM courses, it will become easier for them to fit into related professions naturally.
According to statistics, women that pursue science-related courses primarily select psychology (70 percent), biosciences (51 percent), and social sciences (58 percent) (National Science Foundation, 2017). These statistics heavily depend on factors such as racial background and the type of school that a student chooses to enroll. The number of women in STEM courses is mostly white since they often join private or for-profit institutions. A majority of the women in the minority community tend to enroll in public institutions that do not give them sufficient competitive advantages when looking for jobs (Glass et al. 2013). To counter these challenges, teachers in the K-12 system need to integrate cultural experiences of minority group female students and change their perception about the success rates with black women in STEM professions (Young et al. 2017). According to research, Girls in Highschool partake and perform with equal success in advanced mathematics courses in comparison to boys. The same statistics apply for participation in Science. Empirical research suggests that once educators use positive STEM dispositions and additional considerations to students that are marginalization due to race or gender, the results show more enthusiastic female STEM students (Young et al. 2017). Conclusively, changing the perception of STEM courses in women through education will encourage equal participation of women in the sciences.
Education is very important for any society. It is education that has seen the development of world-changing ideas and new approaches to life. However, what is taught in any institution pays a big role in shaping the community. Today, the globe needs diversity and people that look beyond social constructions. Consequently, the society will focus on educating their people on the need for people to come together for the sake of economic, social, and political stability. It has always been a common belief that racism is a problem that societies had always experienced. These are false beliefs since racism is a relatively young concept that has its roots in the eras of industrialization. Sadly, with time and more civilization, this is a concept that is not yet to be eradicated from the face of the earth. Before the slave trade, there was a clear projection of what slavery would do for the newcomers and why they were handpicked from a different geographic location. Slavery was, ironically, meant to be a means to give slaves freedom from their indigenous areas. The slaves, however, had to pass in several criteria. They had to be identifiable in such a way that they would not easily get assimilated into the community; they needed to stand out. Secondly, they needed to have skills in tobacco growing or rice. Conclusively, all that the slaves had to do was to provide a stable source of labor.
Maternal mental health is a common issue during pregnancy since the mother's body is dealing with a lot of changes. The literature on maternal mental health suggests that the state of the mind of the mother could have adverse effects on a fetus' development and their behavior after they are born. Conceptual and methodological research suggests that the rate of increase in depression and anxiety numbers is continually rising. Motherhood has been continuously glorified, thus placing a lot of pressure on the mother once they begin having negative emotions. In the case of Ekemma, she will likely fall into depression, develop anxiety, and psychological distraught since she feels like she is walking into motherhood alone. The antenatal mental health is dependent on culture and the sociocultural activities to which she is exposed. The mental health of a client will affect her being during, and after the pregnancy, the same concept applied to the unborn child.
Mental health disorders in pregnant women range from anxiety, mood swings to psychosis. Statistically, depression and anxiety are the most common mental health problems affecting about 12 percent and 13 percent of pregnant women, respectively. These numbers tend to rise after childbirth to 15 and 20 percent, respectively (Gold & Marcus, 2008). The maternal mental health can go to extremes where a mother could suffer delusions, experience hallucinations, and fall into a permanent state of psychosis. In cases where the mother feels alone and unappreciated, cases of new symptoms like obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder are not uncommon. The consequences of these disorders manifest in the physical conditions of the mother. Women in this condition are likely to develop eating disorders.
Some mothers lose their appetite entirely while others indulge in food excessively. In the case of Ekemma, being in a state of mental distraught can be dangerous, given that she has gestational diabetes. Her condition requires that her diet is monitored for glucose balance in her body. Low glucose levels would mean that the fetus is not getting enough nutrients for its development. As a result, the fetus could suffer from deficiency diseases. Overindulgence in food, in this case, would result in high...
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