Technologies in Criminal Justice

Paper Type:  Questions & Answers
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1493 Words
Date:  2022-02-22

Technology is highly applied in the justice systems by the officers who enforce the law and those in the legal policies which apply the tech tools to combat the rising crime rate. On the other hand, criminals are increasingly using technology to commit more sophisticated crimes. The criminal justice systems aim to ensure that they keep the public safe by making sure they apply tracking systems and software to aid in hunting down the criminals.

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Part 1

Question 1: What are the biggest problems facing the criminal justice system in the area of computer crime?

Numerous problems are facing the criminal justice systems, but the key or the biggest one among them includes the level of awareness among the private and public organizations which poses a threat to them. In most organizations, the employees and management are not aware of the threat posed by cyber criminals when it comes to the systems that they use daily. According to Ritter (2004) organizations need to be made aware of the threat brought about by technological advancements, how it is abused and the impact this has on national security and crime. The defense department has taken a step to solve the problem by ensuring cyber awareness training is done annually on the military, employees, contractors, and civilians. The practice entails how to create a secure password, usage of computers, protection of classified information and how to check emails.

Another problem involves the outdated criminal and civil laws which tend to be difficult to interpret since they were created when cybercrime was not an afterthought which has necessitated some movements to revamp the laws. For instance, no law exists for seizure and searches which covers explicitly the digital evidence as the laws which apply for forfeiture and searches do so in general sense (Ritter 2004).

Question 2: What types of computer crimes are going to become more prevalent in the future?

Cybercrimes have been on the increase with the rising in technology and advance in the tools being used in the privacy of users. There will be issues like remote access attacks the most common case being crypto jacking that is targeted on the owners of cryptocurrency. The hackers only need to access the port that is open and then forward the information to other sources. Another challenge that is likely to arise is attacked through smartphones; this is concerning browsing that is termed to be unsafe. It has been found out that this is being achieved through mobile browsers and applications. Since most people use their mobile phones to manage even their financial data, the risk grows higher especially when using outside security that is not part of the home network (Gravrock, 2019).

Question 3: Description of the mechanism that terrorists will use in future.

According to (Mates, 2001) terrorism is changing because it is becoming more challenging to handle and lethal. Due to changes and technology, biotechnology and genetic engineering will assist the terrorist in making changes that are calculated in the systems of living. As a result, there will be a rise of abuse of weapons using the medical technology with medicine that is beneficial thus increasing threats. An example of such violations is through enhancing bacterial and viral virulence, expression of genes in heterologous form, making toxins through protein engineering making viral weapons and not forgetting the nuclear weapons. The case of nuclear weapons has already occurred in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Agro-terrorism is also a concern where there are biological attacks towards animals and plants which will destroy humans since it is easier to kill plants and animal than humans.

Part 2

Question 1: What prisons are like today and their purpose?

Prisons vary from one country to another, in some countries especially where the prisons are overcrowded the conditions in the prisons are very intolerable. The environment in the prisons should not be in itself a more significant punishment to the offender but serve as a place to offer preventive and correctional services to them. Prison is meant to rehabilitate and not punish the offenders. However, in some countries, prisons have standard conditions that are not as harsh as in other countries (Abadi, 2019).

According to Mac Cormick (38), the central role of prison is to ensure that crime is prevented. The prisons serve as a place where correctional services are given to offenders to make them better members of society. Prisons serve as a place to avoid delinquency in young boys and girls, for example, the probation, juvenile, and paroles also help in the correctional services being granted to the offenders. Most people tend to think that they are not preventive because it is for only the offenders and therefore places fear of reporting offenders because they fear the punishment that comes in handy. The moment people see the institutions as a preventive measure, there will be a change in society.

Question 2: List and describe the security levels and types of federal institutions.

The security levels have been described in the (prisons website, 2019) as; first is the Minimum security level which is for the inmates who are convicted for non-violence acts in dormitory housing. Those with minimal violence history are places at these camps. Second is the Low-security level it is also a dormitory housing but for the inmates with records of violence. The security levels here are high. The third is the Medium security where the inmates are placed in cells where quite a number of the inmates have a record of violence the security is enforced through armed perimeter vehicle day and night. Fourth is the high security also has cells, and the inmates have a history of violence; there are many cases of gang violence. The security is very high with gun towers. Lastly is the Administrative security where there is no class of persons in the prisons. An example of people in the jails are those requiring medical attention are placed.

The national institution can also be termed as prisons; there are several types as described in the (crime museum, 2019) website; first is juvenile that is for individuals under 18. Second is the minimum, medium and high-security prison for the offenders convicted of crimes like fraud. The third is the psychiatric prison for the persons considered to be mentally ill. Fourth, military jails are designed for military personnel who have broken laws of national security.

Question 3: Additional purposes of jail.

According to (Shestokas, 2012) retribution is a purpose for being put in prison to serve as some punishment or revenge to serve the need of the society having the offender who injures them to be dealt with accordingly. This also helps in the restitution of both the offender and the injured party. Secondly, another purpose for Public education or deterrence- this serves as a tool to stop another person from committing the same crime.

If a punishment of a crime is well known, then people will do all that they can to ensure that they avoid doing it. Finally, rehabilitation of the offenders- a person always has their right side aside from being wrong. Putting a prisoner in prison will help them go back to themselves and see that whatever they did was not right and aim towards being better.

Question 4: Challenges women face in jail.

There are many challenges that women face while in prison according to (Sanford, 2017) the challenges are; medical health- women in jail and require medical attention are not provided the care that they require an example is for those who have given birth while in prison, others end up being addicts due to pain-relieving medicines given to them. Rehabilitation and mental health- when it comes to women in prison, they are not considered especially with the mental state and end up suffering from trauma due to their experiences.

Additionally, there is the challenge of education for women in prison in which they are not given a chance to learn. Women in prison should, therefore, be given a chance to receive general education since most of them are not educated. They should leave the facilities in better condition than when they were imprisoned.

Works Cited

Abadi, M (2018). Photos of Prisons in Different Places retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/prison-cells-prisoners-around-the-world-2018-3?IR

Crime Museum (2019) retrieved from https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/famous-prisons-incarceration/types-of-prisons/

Gravrock, E (2019). Biggest Cybercrime Trends of 2019 retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/here-are-the-biggest-cybercrime-trends-of-2019/

Mates, M (2001). Technology and Terrorism. Interim Report retrieved from https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/ul_kom/natopa/raporlar/bilim%20ve%20teknoloji/AU%20121%20STC%20Terrorism.htm

McCormick, A (1950). The Prison's Role in Crime Prevention retrieved from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3752&context=jclc

Ritter, N. (2004). Preparing for the Future: Criminal Justice in 2040. Retrieved May 28, 2015, from http://www.nij.gov/journals/255/pages/2040.aspx

Sanford, A (2017). The Unique Challenges Incarcerated Women Face retrieved from https://medium.com/valiance/the-unique-challenges-incarcerated-women-face-3021aad2de68

Shestokas, J (2012). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment retrieved from http://www.shestokas.com/general-law/criminal-law/the-purpose-of-criminal-punishment/

Understanding Prison Security Levels (2019) retrieved from https://www.prisonerresource.com/security-levels/

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Technologies in Criminal Justice. (2022, Feb 22). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/technologies-in-criminal-justice

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