The upgrade in information technology is has drastically changed the business environment when in terms of marketing of goods and services. The alarming in the world of business is the adoption of self-service technology. According to Meuter et al. (2000) self-service technology interfaces that enables consumers to come up with a service independent of direct service employee participation. Self-service technology provides a variety of services such as customer services, self help and monetary transactions. Various service providers are now attracted in using of self-service technology in order to enhance the quality of their services, attract new customers and to reduce on cost of operation.
More self-service technology applications are emerging in the marketing environment and slowly taking over the full-service option. This comprises of a variety on many service interfaces online, telephone-based technology and interactive free-free standing kiosks so as to keep the increasing need of the marketing environment.
Although most studies have explored the dynamic and characteristic of customers interactions with their service provider, little information have been researched with consumer interactions with technological interfaces. The most discussed issue regarding self-service technology focuses on the need to carry out more research on dynamics of self-service encounters into this technology-oriented perspective.
Categories and Examples of use Self-Service Technology
Telephone /interactive voice response
Online/internet Interactive kiosks Video/CD
Self-Help Information telephone lines
Internet information Tourist information
Blood pressure machine Television/CD-based training
Tax preparation software
Transactions Telephone banking
Pay at pump Customer Services Order status
Flight information package tracking
Bank information Hotel check out
ATMs Note. From Matthew L. Meuter, Amy L. Ostrom, Robert I. Roundtree, Mary Jo Bitner (2000) Self-Service Technologies: Understanding Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters. Journal of Marketing: July 2000, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 50-64
The table 1 provides examples of self-service technology across various types of technological interfaces and the purposes. Even though the current anticipation over the application of internet application means that a number of organizations are investing their resources heavily into column of the matrix, it is evident that a variety of self-service technology potential exists. In the research reported, we explore all types of self-service technology.
A number of these self-service technologies have been around for a while and a good number of individuals are aware of them. Consumers are always looking for concrete evidence on every transaction they do with most companies as these services are intangible. Consequently, consumers nowadays have a prior understanding on self self-service technology based on the experience they have and their attitudes. The first ever self-service technology to be introduced to consumers was automatic teller machine (ATM) in the beginning of 1980s.
Self-service technology comes with a wide variety and purpose hence it is necessary
Self-service technology Profiling users
Profiling the Malaysian typical self-service technology on individuals enables more understanding on their behavior as consumers. Dabholkar & Bagozzi (2002) have categorized users of self-service technology in three categories which are demographic factors, personality and psychographic profiles. According to various researches that have been done based on demographic factors, researchers have concluded that young males who are educated are the are more likely to adopt self-service technology easily as compared to any other demographic group.
Challenges facing Self-Service Technology
Getting consumer get used to self-service technology is the main challenge facing self-service technology. To ensure that the introduction of self-service technology is successful, service providers need to provide the system at an appropriate time. Recent studies show that dissatisfaction experienced by consumer while interacting with self-service technology were as a result of technological problems. Therefore, the use of self-service technology can create problems to organization that to trickle down their benefits of added control to their clients and at the same time, they should consider the level of confusion it creates in the service experience. The author further states that self-service technology is like any other service that faces some uncertainty and it is not to assess beforehand. Majority of consumers are not willing to adopt the new technology. Organizations who are the service providers have invested a lot of money in self-service technology but they are not benefiting from the investment due to slow adoption of the self-service technology.
Understanding the need of customers sometimes is a fatal mission, thus before organizations put in place self-service technology. More time and resources is required to understand the fundamentals that make consumers to prefer a particular self-service option. Additionally, it is the work of manager to find out in detail why individuals are reluctant when it comes in adopting self-service technology.
According to TAM, perceived usefulness is the degree to which consumers believes that utilizing a particular system will impact their attitude that at the same time have an effect on how they intent and actual use a certain technology. According to TAM, perceived gain is extent to which an individual trusts that utilizing a specific framework would upgrade his or her employment execution. In the 20th century, TAM have been applied and perceived usefulness have been found as a determinant of exact behavior that encourages customers use more user-friendly and innovative self service technologies that provided them with a significant autonomy while performing online transactions such as raising orders online, payment and interacting with manufactures. Xxxx noted that perceived usefulness depends on organizations ability to provide user-friendly online platforms where customers for example can make payment easily, truck orders among other activities. Perceived usefulness has been proven to have a great impact on adaptation of self-service technology. When good number consumers adopt SST for example mobile banking services, the service is likely to be adopted. The author further states that, SST offers consumers a sense of control and if it performs as expected or helps them in complicated situation; they are like to be satisfied. The author further stated that perceived usefulness is the extent to which consumers perceive a certain innovation as easy to use operate and learn. Most of consumers perceive SST as a new innovation and a direct substitute on what they have been using. SST have been simplified and most of them can be easily adopted by consumes as SST are considered as easy to use. The author further stated that perceived usefulness enables consumers to experiment on new self-service technology and critically analyze its benefit. The author states that most SST has come with a lot of benefits as most market players are trying as much as possible to remain competitive. Individuals have found themselves getting used to SST when they are examining the usefulness of the system.
According to xxxx the key drivers of growth in self-service technology determined by perceived usefulness which a combination of advantages that are provided by accessibility to internet, the availability of advanced online organization platforms that have been created specifically for consumers and online payment. Due to increased use of Smartphones, most consumers now access internet and can make a variety of applications that support SST. He states that these applications come with various features that enable the individuals to carry out activities such as online bookings and payment. The study concluded that individuals behavioral intention to use smart-phone was mostly influenced by perceived usefulness. Furthemore, xxxxx found that, perceived usefulness is the key reason why most of consumers use online retailer and its websites. They stated that retail sector had created online sites that enabled consumers to interact easily with its customers 24 hours a day. The online sites enabled customers to view specifications of different items and order for them at the comfort of their sofa set. It is increasingly evident that SST will continue to be critical component of customer firm relationship. The author further states that the technology based interactions are perceived to become key drivers of most of the businesses. Consumers perceived such idea to be useful as it saves time, convenient and they were not to physically require visiting the retailer shop. Consumers do participates in using of technology although it is not east to measure perceived usefulness in self-service technology as individuals do not own the technology. Although many academic researches have acknowledged a call for a greater understanding in this area (xxxx,xxxx,xxx) little is known on individuals interactions with self-service technology options affects individuals behavior and evaluation.
Xxx contacted a study to figure out the determinant of adoption of self-service technology and found out that perceived usefulness and speed of use are major determinants of adoption of SST. The benefit of determinants differ by customers segment and age groups.
Individual perceive control
According to Pacheco (2013), individual perceived control is a belief that the individual is able to influence and make a different in the event that surround them. The author further states that heartening this belief is supportive in assisting individuals to take control and deal with things that stress them in their lives. The Pacheco further describes individual perceived control as a subjective assessment of managing tasks in an environment. In a self-service technology setting, it refers to individual sense of mastery over a certain course of action and outcomes of the service interface. According to XXXX, individuals perceived control on SST makes self-service technology to be accepted. The author states that due to increased completion in business environment, organizations are now focusing on how to remain competitive in the bossiness environment. This has forced most of them to create a conducive environment that enables individuals to have control on SST technologies and this has a positive attitude towards SST.
Although most researchers have found out that perceived control have direct influence to individuals attitude towards SST. Findings by Ndubisi, Jantan and Richardson, (2001) have shown no significant effect of perceived control on individuals attitude towards SST. They suggested that a number of factors such as sophisticated of self-service technology and user experience of SST might influence the individual attitude towards SST. They stated that further studies should be carried on the influence of perceived control on self-service technology.
According to xxxx SST has improved the quality of service offered to individuals by most businesses. For these individuals to have full benefit of self-service technology, perceived control enables them to have control over SST so that to reduce the chances of failure or compromising the intended intention of self-service technology. When an individual realizes SST in performing well under his /her control and fulfilling most of their daily needs such as online purchases, they can easily adopt SST. Collier and Sherrel (201...
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