Questions on Biology and Health

Date:  2021-07-17 20:49:45
7 pages  (1792 words)
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Boston College
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Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each sentence. Be as specific as possible.

Erythrocytes contain the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the conversion of metabolically produced CO2 and water into bicarbonate ions.

Most old erythrocytes are removed from circulation and destroyed by cells called macrophages, as they rupture passing through the narrow capillaries of the organ called the liver.

Undifferentiated cells called bone marrow cells reside in the bone marrow, where they continuously divide and differentiate to give rise to each of the types of blood cells.

The process of leukocytes squeezing through the capillary wall to exit the vasculature is known as diapedesis. Once they leave the bloodstream to fight a pathological condition, they never return.

The genetically-determined glycoprotein and glycolipid antigens found on the surface of an erythrocyte are called surface markers, and a person with agglutinins that react with type A and blood type B has type O blood.

During embryonic development, ninety-nine percent of the cardiac fibers are specialized for the function called contraction, whereas the remainder is specialized for pacemaker activity.

The action potential delay at the AV node ensures that atrial excitation and contraction are complete before ventricular excitation and contraction commence.

The end-systolic volume is the volume of blood in the ventricle after ejection has been completed. An increase of this volume occurs when the stroke volume is low.

The three cations, K+, Ca2+, and Na+, have an important effect on heart function. Increased blood levels of Na+ blocks Ca+ inflow and results in a decrease in the force of contraction, while an excess of calcium ions prevents the generation of action potentials.

An increase in parasympathetic activity after a crisis has passed has the following effect on stroke volume: reduces stroke volume. An increase in parasympathetic activity depresses atrial contractility.

A patient has the misfortune to have both diabetes insipidus and Addisons disease. How will those conditions affect the patients ability to regulate blood pressure?

Diabetes insipidus is a condition that is caused by under-secretion of vasopressin, also known as an antidiuretic hormone. On the other hand, Addisons disease is a disorder that develops when there is a deficiency of aldosterone and cortisol, hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. The inadequacy of ADH leads to decreased reabsorption of water into the blood. Less water means less blood volume, which leads lower blood pressure.

Aldosterone plays a critical role in blood pressure regulation. It regulates blood pressure by through its action on the kidney and the colon. Specifically, the release of aldosterone into these organs led to increased reabsorption of sodium into the bloodstream and increased removal of potassium in the urine. Apart from increasing reabsorption of sodium, aldosterone increases the blood volume and blood pressure because water is reabsorbed together with sodium. Therefore, when there is insufficient aldosterone, a condition that is associated with Addisons disease, the absorption of sodium and water is decreased, thus leading to low blood pressure.

In the correct sequence, list the names of the blood vessels and hearts chambers that an RBC would travel through (or flow into other vessels) on its journey from the muscles located anterior to the right tibia to the heart, then to the left shoulder muscles, and then back to the heart. Take into consideration only the vessels listed in the Study Guide.

From the heart, the red blood cell travels to the ascending aorta, then enter the aortic arch: the top part of the main artery which carries blood away from the heart. The red blood cell leaves the aorta via the left subclavian artery, then enters the axillary artery, then enters brachial artery. At the elbow, RBC move into smaller arterioles which lead to the capillary beds, and after that into the venules found in the elbow. From here, the erythrocytes will move into the median cubital vein, cephalic vein, and basilic vein. From basilic vein, RBC enters the brachial vein, which empties into the axillary vein. The cephalic vein drains the lateral part of the arm and joins the axillary vein. From here, the red blood cell will enter the subclavian and brachiocephalic veins before joining the SVC, which carries the erythrocytes back to the heart.

Describe the activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells and B cells and briefly describe the functions of the differentiated cells.

T cells are said to be activated after being presented with peptide antigens by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules while B-cells activation involves binding of antigen to receptors on its cell surface which leads to cell division and proliferation. After activation, the B cells and T cells undergo cell division forming mor cells (proliferation) and differntiate forming effector cells that play the important roles of secreting antibodies and cytotoxic antipathogen molecules respectively. Moreover, differentiated T cells and B cells move to infection sites and release chemokines that recruit more immune cells to destroyed unhealthy cells.

Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B.

Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B.

Column A Column B

1 alveolar macrophages

2 alveoli actual sites of gas exchange

3 Bohr effect when pH decreases, O2 saturation of hemoglobin decreases

4 bronchi

5 bronchiole

6 cerebral cortex

7 chloride shift

8 Compliance amount of effort required to expand the lungs and chest wall

9 Coastal breathing shallow breathing using just the external intercostal

10 Daltons law each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own partial pressure

11 diaphragmatic breathing

12 epiglottis

13 Eupnea normal, quiet breathing

14 expiratory reserve volume

15 Fauces opening from oral cavity into pharynx

16 functional residual capacity residual volume + expiratory reserve volume; usually about 2400 mL in males

17 Haldane effect

18 Henrys law states that the amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas and its solubility

19 hilum

20 hypothalamus

21 inferior, middle, and superior nasal meatuses

22 Inspiratory capacity tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume, usually about 3600 mL in males

23 Larynx passes air from pharynx into windpipe; site of sound production

24 limbic system

25 medulla oblongata sets basic rhythm of breathing

26 nose

27 paranasal sinuses resonate(s) sound; not part of pharynx

28 pharynx serves as a sound resonating chamber; contains tonsils; directs air inferiorly

29 pleural membranes surround the lungs

30 pons includes the pontine respiratory group

31 primary bronchus carries air to a lung

32 secondary bronchus

33 surface tension

34 surfactant reduces surface tension at sites of gas exchange

35 terminal bronchiole carries air directly into a respiratory bronchiole

36 tertiary bronchus carries air to a segment of a lung

37 total lung capacity

38 trachea

39 vital capacity tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume; usually about 4800 mL in males

You eat spaghetti with meatballs in marinara sauce and drink a glass of orange juice. Describe the chemical components of your meal, the digestive events in the mouth, and the content of your stomach one hour after you ingest the meal and juice, and describe what happens to the chemical constituents in the stomach. Describe the digestive processes for each of these nutrients in the small intestine, and the mechanisms for absorption of vitamins, water, and electrolytes.

Spaghetti is mainly made up of carbohydrates, meatballs contain proteins, while orange juice is mostly comprised of vitamins. In the mouth, food is broken down into small pieces by the teeth in a process called mastication, then mixed with saliva. An enzyme, salivary amylase found in the saliva digest starch into maltose. Digestion of proteins does not take place in the mouth. In the stomach, partial digestion of food takes place. Specifically, pepsin found in the gastric juice digest proteins into peptides. However, digestion of carbohydrates does not take place in the stomach. Similarly, absorption of vitamins does not occur here. Therefore, one hour after eating the meal, the stomach will contain peptides, maltose, and vitamins.

In the small intestine, the final digestion of food takes place under the influence of digestive enzymes and bicarbonate contained in pancreatic juice. One of the enzymes maltase converts maltose into glucose (the final products of digestion of spaghetti). These are the final products of digestion of carbohydrates. In the small intestine, proteases are also involved in final digestion of proteins (meatball). Specifically, trypsin and chymotrypsin digest protein into peptides, while peptidase found in the digest peptides into amino acids. The final product of digestion of meatball (amino acids) and spaghetti (glucose) are absorbed into the blood here. Lastly, most of the vitamins contained in orange juice are absorbed in the small intestine.

Fill in the words or phrases that best complete the sentence.

Metabolism is the sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body, while catabolism refers to chemical reactions that decompose large molecules into smaller ones.

Reduction is the chemical reaction in which there is a gain of electrons, and it is the opposite of oxidation.

NAD+ is a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms during coupled reduction and oxidation reactions in the cell.

Energy is made primarily in the mitochondria by a process called respiration.

Glycolysis is a set of reactions in which there is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, and gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose molecules from noncarbohydrate sources.

Cholesterol transport lipids in the bloodstream; they include VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs. In lipolysis, lipids are split into fatty acids and glycerol.

Acetyl CoA is the molecule that enters the Krebs cycle; it is also used to synthesize fatty acids, ketone bodies, and steroids.

Insulin is the primary hormone regulating metabolism during the absorptive state; the major task of the postabsorptive state is to maintain the normal blood glucose level.

The metabolic rate observed when a fasting individual is resting but awake and is experiencing comfortable conditions is called the basal metabolic rate. Peripheral circulation allows increased blood flow to superficial tissues of the body to release excess heat.

Na+ is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid; proper levels of this ion are critical for nerve impulse conduction and maintenance of electrolyte balance.

Describe the pressures that affect glomerular filtration, and describe the effects of drinking too much beer on the urinary system.

Glomerular filtration is largely influenced by capillary pressures. Specifically, the movement of water and solutes across the glomerular membrane into the Bowmans capsule is mainly due to the hydrostatic pressure found in the capillary. The hydrostatic pressure of the capillaries is created by resistance to blood flow in the afferent and efferent arterioles and the systemic arterial pressure.

Drinking too much beer stops the production of antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin in the pituitary gland. Consequently, there is decreased permeability of the kidney tubules to water. This results in reduced reabsorption of water and sodium into the bloodstream. As a result, there is increased urine volume, due to loss of water through urine, which changes the bodys hydration state...

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