Table of Contents 4
List of Tables 6
List of Figures 7
List of Abbreviations 8
Chapter One Introduction 10
1.1 Introduction to the Topic 10
1.2 Background of the Study 15
1.3 Statement of the Problem 18
1.4 Purpose of the Study 19
1.5 Research Questions 19
1.6 Significance of the Study 20
Literature Review 22
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Transfer of Knowledge and Skills to the Workplace 22
2.3 Types of Transfer 24
2.4 Distinguishing between Training and Transfer 25
2.5 Managerial and Non-Managerial Training 27
2.6 Opportunities and Constraints 31
2.7 Evaluation of Training 31
2.8 Barriers of Transfer of Skills and Knowledge 32
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Research Approaches 37
3.3 Research Design 38
3.4 Data Collection Methods 39
3.4.1 Meta-analysis 39
3.4.2 Questionnaire 40
3.5 Sampling 41
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 42
3.7 Ethical Issues 43
Findings and Analysis 44
4.1 Introduction 44
4.2 Findings from the Meta-analysis 44
4.3 Findings from Questionnaires 46
4.2.1 Profile of the Participants 46
4.2.2 Perceptions towards the Transferability of Skills and Knowledge to the Workplace 47
4.2.3 Barriers Inhibiting Transfer of Knowledge and Skills 49
4.2.4 Correlation Analysis 52
Chapter Five - Discussion 53
Chapter Six - Conclusions and Recommendations 63
6.1 Conclusions 63
6.2 Recommendations 63
6.3 Limitations 64
6.4 Suggestion for Future Research 64
Appendix - Questionnaire 70
List of Tables
Table 1: Moderator Analysis 44
Table 2: Demographic Characteristics of the Participants 45
Table 3: Perceptions towards the Transferability of Skills and Knowledge to the Workplace 47
Table 4: Existence of Barriers Inhibiting Positive Transfer of Skills and Knowledge to the Workplace 48
Table 5: Barriers Inhibiting Transfer of Skills and Knowledge 49
Table 6: Influence of Peers in Transferring Knowledge and Skills 50
Table 7: Correlation Analysis 51
List of Figures
Figure 1: Transformation of the Statement Choices to Effects of the Transfer of Skills and Knowledge 46
List of Abbreviations
HR - Human resources
1.1 Introduction to the Topic
With reference to the workplace, transfer of skills and knowledge is the successful application of new information that has been learned from attending educational or training programs. In other words, the transfer of skills and knowledge in a workplace takes place when learning in a particular context influences performance of the employee depending on the context he/she is in. Theoretically, transfer of skills and knowledge occurs when previously learned skills and knowledge influence the manner in which new skills and knowledge are performed and learned. Therefore, it is important to note that the transfer process could affect a wider range of any new skills and knowledge within the circumscribed subject matter.
As Haghirian (2011) points out, there is an expanding reaction of the transfer process problem in organizational training. As an organization Qatar Stock Exchange spend over a million dollars on development and training per annum but the companys extensive training program evaluation system confirms that there is minimal indication that what the employees learn is actually transferred to their jobs. Furthermore, researchers have also come to the conclusion that the level of training conducted within organizations does not get transferred to the work environment by the employees. This means that organizations need to device plans that will encourage the employees to transfer the skills and knowledge that they have learned to their jobs.
Widen-Wulff & Suomi (2010) highlighted growing evidence that usually shows that training and the knowledge and skills attained from it by the employees are not transferred to the workplace. They also revealed three main conditions for successful transfers that include: the training information has to be relevant to the job, the employee/trainee has to learn this information and he/she has to be motivated so that knowledge and skills can be applied.
Ultimately, the transfer of skills and knowledge to workplace practice is considered as a worldwide problem; it is hard to measure this factor because of the variable that affects the transfer process to a workplace. Most countries spend billions of dollars trying to improve the skills and enhance knowledge of the employees but the results are below expectations. Furthermore, knowledge and skills transfer is prevented by several factors which include those linked to the characteristics of the employees, the work environment and the transfer process.
As Moustaghfir (2011) points out, with regards to the workplace, skill and knowledge transfer is described as an effective application by employees to their individual jobs; as a result, organizational performance and productivity increases. Theoretically, skills and knowledge transfer affect the way employees learn and perform their work. Usually, employees attain new knowledge and skills from training; however, they find it difficult to transfer their newly acquired knowledge to the workplace based on many reasons. Additionally, transferring the skills and knowledge to the workplace faces several barriers like employee barriers, the transfer design, organizational barriers and lack of support from the supervisors.
It is also important to note that training is the most common tool that is used to improve the employees abilities, skills and knowledge whereby most organizations including Qatar Stock Exchange has applied necessary steps to provide essential training to the employees in every level. The training usually covers areas like conceptual, technical, and attitude aspects that aim to enhance the employees competency. However, despite the expense spent on conducting training programs for the employees, most companies find it difficult to transfer the skills and knowledge attained at the training.. Therefore, this study will try to focus on the barriers that affect the transfer process.
The main stock market in Qatar is Qatar Stock Exchange. It was formed in 1995 and began operating officially in 1997; it has since grown to be among the leading stock markets in the region. Its main objective is support the economy of Qatar by establishing a platform for raining capital among Qatar companies; this is part of the corporate strategy which offers investors an opportunity to trade various products in an efficient and transparent manner. Furthermore, the Qatar Stock Exchange offers the public access to the market information and ensures accurate disclosure of the information (Qatar Stock Exchange website).
For Qatar Stock Exchange, it is important to become aware of the barriers so that it can assist them to understand the reason why it is hard to have successful transferability of skills and knowledge. It is important to note that current organizations are facing critical competition from a worldwide point of view along with the pressures of globalization surrounding the business environment. From a global perspective, organizations face globalization of employees and the business in general. As a result, it has become important to understand the nature of transferability of skills and knowledge in a workplace. Gradually, there has been a decrease of the transferability rates generated from the Qatar Stock Exchange which shows that even with proper training, this issue is still critical.
Many empirical studies relating to the transferability of skills and knowledge to the workplace have been carried out in an attempt to acquire better understanding of factors which affect the transfer process. Additionally, such studies have provided numerous suggestions for transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace. For instance, according to Murata (2012) there are some influences that can assist in the transfer of skills and knowledge which include Relapse Prevention (RP) and transfer climates. He adds that these aspects have offered the foundation for shifting from the organizational application concept.
Widen-Wulff & Suomi, (2007) carried out a quantitative approach on a related study whereby they combined several studies and offered participants a general prediction of measurement. In a similar context, this study will relate to perceptions of effects on the transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace, the influences of non-managerial and managerial training, distinguish between supervisor-peer reporting and self-reporting, and determine if distinctions exist between development and training. Alternately, Haghirian (2011) suggests that coworkers have to support each other in order to enhance transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace. This may only take place if the coworkers become supportive and encourage one another to apply their newly acquired skills and knowledge.
According to Moustaghfir (2011), the main challenge that affects an organization like Qatar Stock Exchange is transferring the knowledge and skills that have been attained during training into the workplace. Therefore, the supervisor or manager at Qatar Stock Exchange must take the initiative of ensuring that an employee applies knowledge and skills attained; otherwise the employees lack of motivation and guidance may affect the transfer process.
Results from a study performed in North America revealed that an average worker receives almost 28 hours of training each year which, costs over 800 dollars for each employee (Widen-Wulff & Suomi, 2007). Nevertheless, despite the huge amount of money as well as employee hours which organizations dedicate to the training and education programs, there is insufficient evidence which shows that the skills and knowledge learned during the programs are successfully transferred to the work environment. Moreover, one estimate claims that the employees usually transfer less than ten percent of the Human Resource Development (HRD) expenditures into their workplaces (Wan et al., 2015). In light of these poor estimates with regards to the amount of skills and knowledge transferred into the workplace, the application or transfer of skills and knowledge learned has become the essential issue for organizations such as Qatar...
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