The research article provided aimed to study aim was to identify specific characteristics that most affect students achievement. The variables chosen are CSAP composite score, which is attained by averaging scores of reading, writing and math exams (Aske & Corman, 2008). This variable can be stated as a ratio/scalar variable as it is in a continuous arithmetic form with ratings highly likely to be represented by 0-100. Variables such as height and weight are measured by a numerical scale, convey quantitative information and are called as quantitative variables. Sex and eye colour give qualitative data and are called as qualitative variables. This shows that exams scores are quantitative. The variable is a dependent variable as it relies on other variables to increase or decrease in the count. Kalof, Dan, and Dietz (2008) suggest that one should look at the time ordering of the variables: "If one variable is describing things that occur before the attributes specified by another variable happen, then the first variable can be usually taken as the independent variable and the second as the dependent variable. This affirms that the CSAP score is a dependent variable as it is described by the other variables before its occurrence. The variable is essential as reading, writing and arithmetic (math) are the most basic forms of education needed. This variable, therefore, touches all aspects thus required necessary (Agee, 2009).
The other variables which were independent were; student enrollment stability, free lunch, student membership (ethnicity). Student enrollment stability helps understand the rate in which students enrol in a school this can help in understanding the school's performance but gives minimal information on the student's likelihood to perform well. This is because a school can have high enrollment stability, but also the school might be losing students at the same rate. Free lunch variable is an essential factor where it aims to understand if student constraint in having meals in school affects their performance. This is because no one can learn on an empty stomach; thus if free lunches are initiated, there is a high rate that students might perform better. Student membership (ethnicity) is divided into Black, Hispanic, Asian, to name a few showing a categorical variable thus nominal. As previously revealed, such characteristics fall under qualitative. This variable helps in understanding achievement is related to where a student comes. The variable is essential as it is known that different authenticity face different challenges have different beliefs, to name a few. Therefore, the variable is necessary for the study. Another variable used for testing was poverty measurement, which also is essential as it enables the examination to check on the availability of resources for each student. The availability or access to funds is vital as it affects the level of achievement a student can attain unless they go over their means to achieve extreme performance. The student attendance rate was also included as a variable which is essential as it measures the frequency in which students attend school. This is essential as high attendance is always correlated to high performance; thus, the variable can reveal this and also be related to other variables such as poverty rate. The students-teacher ratio was also an essential variable to understand the availability of teachers for the students; also, a balanced ratio reduces workload; therefore, teachers can concentrate on giving quality attention and aid to students.
The article (Greenblatt, Dickinson & Simpson, 2004) highlighted some key points on where research questions are revealed as an essential tool in study topics where it spearheads the type of research done or the design that is whether quantitative or qualitative. This is done by focusing on how the question will be answered based on facts and numbers too. If the research question is best answered by a focused look at a small number of cases or occurrences, then the research is qualitative. Qualitative research data are derived from interviews, observations, or in-depth case studies as it easy to conduct with a small number. If the best way to answer the research question is to look at facts and figures for a large number of people, then the research will be quantitative using surveys, questionnaires, to name a few. This helps in the distribution of many questions to a large number of people, unlike interviews, which will be very limiting and time-consuming. Many qualitative researchers see a problem as a beginning point for their research. Once a satisfactory question is in place, a study can begin (Agee, 2009). This is also seen in the article where they insisted on its importance to continue with the research study.
Yes, it did. The researchers Fisher and Frey (2008) highlight the questions administered; procedures/methods used and elaborate on findings of the research. This gives an all-round analysis of the study topic. Participants outline shows the demographics of those who answered the questions, thus providing an understanding of the population. How data was collected reveals the issues and why they were administered concerning the topic, e.g. in the teachers' survey the first part of a single-page study provided space for teachers to rank order the seven instructional strategies in order of importance for teaching content. An analysis of the data section, the researcher, highlights how the data were coded, type of measurements used, i.e. frequency and method used to analyze the data results such as comparative. This helps the reader have an understanding of what to expect and also understand the data being explained and how it came about. The article, therefore, is efficient for further understanding of the study. Statistical methods involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing, drawing meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings (Ali, & Bhaskar, 2016). This affirms the procedures done in the article where planning was done by choice of high school and why it fits the study. Designing was noted on the type, and ways questions would be administered, collection of data was seen on the use of surveys and interviews, analyzing was done using comparative methods, and research findings were revealed in the findings section with the help of tables. The article also used a comparative approach to explain their outcomes where they compared their results to other peer-related literature findings. This gave an elaborate understanding of the study in correlation to previously done studies, thus strengthening data attained.
Agee, J. (2009). Developing qualitative research questions: a reflective process. International journal of qualitative studies in education, 22(4), 431-447. https://www.tandfonline.com ' doi ' pdf
Ali, Z., & Bhaskar, S. B. (2016). Essential statistical tools in research and data analysis. Indian journal of anaesthesia, 60(9), 662. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ' articles ' PMC5037948
Aske, D., & Corman, R. (2008). The relationship between school characteristics and student performance on standardized tests in the Denver metro region. Proceeding of the Academy of Educational Leadership, 13(2). Retrieved from citeseerx.ist.psu.edu ' view doc ' download
Greenblatt, M., Dickinson, G., & Simpson, C. (2004). Implementing the Research Question. Knowledge Quest, 33(2), 75. Retrieved from https://irenelopatovska.files.wordpress.com ' 2018/09 ' 630-syllabus-fa18
Kalof, L., Dan, A., & Dietz, T. (2008). Essentials of social research. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Kaur, S. P. (2013). Variables in research. Indian Journal of Research and Reports in Medical Sciences, 3(4), 36-38. Retrieved from jmscr.igmpublication.org
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