Paper Example on Historical Events and Historical Figures

Paper Type:  Course work
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1608 Words
Date:  2022-04-04

Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama is a Portuguese admired of his exploration abilities such as linking Europe and India by sea. The discovery of the route connecting India and Europe brought global imperialism that allowed Portuguese to establish a lasting colonial empire in the continent (Napoli, 2010). His navigation skills proved critical to the discovery of a route that allowed other Europeans to sail to India (Koestler-Grack & Goetzmann, 2009). The link became an essential instrument in the navigation industry during the Age of Discovery.

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Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years' War captures series of violent confrontation in Europe between 1618 and 1648. It started as a religious war pitting Catholic and Protestants before gradually drawing great powers. The involvement of large mercenary armies changed the war from religious conflict to continue the France-Habsburg rivalry (Wilson, 2009). Its impact was immense on the political, social and religious landscape. It brought millions of fatalities with German population worst hit, spread diseases and destroyed crops. It brought geographical and political realignments with Holy Roman Empire losing power as other European nations emerged. The deployment of vast armies drained resources of participating resources forcing some into nearly broke situations (Wedgwood, 2016). It makes it the worst period with working people and peasants targeted by the unfair taxation increased to fund the war activities. The costly war brought financial burden, diseases and crop destruction besides displacement and fatalities.

Martin Luther

Martin Luther started the protestant reformation by questioning tenets that guided Roman Catholicism. His policies brought church reforms including bridging the gap between followers and their church leaders (Luther, 2016; Mansch & Peters, 2016). His studies gave him religious enlightenment that he fought enslavement by religious dogma. Martin believed that faith would bring people salvation. The Roman Catholic Church excommunicated him prompting him to introduce Lutheranism supported by the German princes (Hendrix, 2010; (Kolb, 2009). His teachings expanded his church even after his death in 1546.

Louis XIV

Louis XIV served the longest monarch reign in European history in his seventy-two years rule as King of France. He assumed efforts to centralize state governance from the capital. He eliminated the feudalism elements by compelling noble members to live in this Versailles Palace (Levillain & Claydon, 2016). It allowed him to consolidate a governance system that brought absolute monarchical rule across France. He made France a dominant power by annexing key territories by working tirelessly to centralize power over overseas colonies. His reform agenda featured sharp reduction of deficits in sustained industry growth (Hickman, Fordham, & Smith, 2016). Besides expanding and reorganizing the French army, Louis pacified and disempowered the rebellious nobles responsible for eleven civil wars. However, his triumph over the Grand Alliance would strain France resources though retained its territory intact (Black, 2013). The exposure to the protracted conflict plunged the country into massive debt sparking the loss of public trust in the crown.

Hernan Cortes

Hernan Cortes led Spanish expedition credited with the defeat of Aztec Empire and conquer mainland Mexico. He embraced the divided rule by allying the natives against others, and after that use extra troops to fight them and win (Owens, 2017). He would spend time seeking support and recognition from the royal court after taking on Cholula and Tlaxacan warriors (Blacker, 2015). Assisted by smallpox, he led his army to defeat the Aztec empire with many succumbing to the disease. The destruction of the native cities eroded the civilization with the European Spain conquest introducing Christianity. However, the defeat of the Aztec empire reveals harsh treatment with Spaniards using cruelty means to demand control and new lands (Oldstone, 2009). His legacy is controversial for spearheading inhumane treatment of natives though important by reshaping the world trough securing productive land and economic opportunities that benefited the Spanish Monarch (Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, Hirsch, & Johnson, 2011). Besides building Mexico City, his conquest opened Central America and Southern territories.

Mestizo

Mestizo refers to traditional reference meant to address individuals of mixed European and Amerindian descent. Its usages arose in the casta system when the Spanish Empire reigned over American colonies. Its usage in Latin America became central to the formation of new independent identity neither Spanish nor indigenous (Stavans, 2013). Consequently, it served to identify individuals of European, Asian and African descent were implying non-white. Its application manifests in today's reference made to indicate individuals of mixed race. The emphasis of racial classification in American colonies saw many indigenous people seek Mestizo identification to avoid paying tribute to the Spanish Empire (Agabin, 2011). Its widespread utilization across different regions referred to mixed ancestry including, roughly translated as Mixture to address American-Indians, French-Indian, and Dutch-Indian alongside Portuguese-Indian.

Songhay Empire

Songhai Empire refers to the great trading state headquartered in Gao between 15th and 16th Century. The emprise located in West Africa drew its name from the dominant ethnic group regarded as the ruling elite. It emerged from the regional importance to trading activities. Supremacy battles led to the disintegration of Mali Empire, then allowing Songhai rules surpass its wealth, power and wealth (Njoh, 2006). Failure to replicate Sonni Ali led Muhammad Ture to overthrow Sonni Baru in 1493. His leadership brought political and economic reforms till 1529. Subsequent coups led brought the decline in the empire alongside series of civil wars. It would regain stability and military successes during Askia Daoud leadership (1549-1583) before experiencing further dynastic struggles caused civil strife that allowed Al- Mansur from Morocco conquer Songhai in 1591. The Dendi Kingdom would gain control over Trans-Saharan trade and oversee sustenance of Songhai culture.

Middle Passage

The Middle Passage featured under the triangular slave-trading where millions of Africans were shipped across the Atlantic to the New World. The Middle Passage brought horrific and inhumane experiences to Africans transported in densely packed ships (Johnson, 2012). Africans were regarded as commodities in a barter trade system in exchange for commercial products from Europe. The enslaved Africans would then cross to the New World and exchanged for raw materials (Smallwood, 2009;Sharp & Schomp, 2007)). It brought immense suffering to Africans, mostly kidnapped and endured wretched conditions. The slaves faced endless dangers including attacks from hostile tribes, pirates and enemy ships amidst exposure to bad weather conditions (Feelings, 2018). This is the worst society one would live given the physical attacks, sexual abuse, psychological torture perpetrated by captors even after surviving the captivity horrors.

Hongwu

Hongwu was the founding emperor of Ming Dynasty after successfully conquering the Yuan dynasty led by Mongol. His triumph brought military, educational and administrative reforms though bestowing supreme power to the emperor (Elliot & Shambaugh, 2015). He sought guidance from the educated men he interacted with to learn government principles expertly he applied to build efficient administration. The trained advisers alongside his shrewd military abilities allowed him to implement sound governmental measures. His leadership turned irrational and cruel as he aged to initiate a court similar to the Mongol (Books LLC, 2010). He feared Mongol invasion forcing him to grant principalities to his sons. The national military leadership brought reforms including subsidized educations in schools established at the local level (Lockwood, 2012). The examination system allowed him to recruit the best minds tasked to oversee the delivery of governmental services (Hu, 2007). It allowed him to introduce Chinese way of government that forbade administrative corruption and punished malpractices. He brought economic reforms founded on agriculture, thereby boosting commerce. Besides religious policy and foreign affairs, his triumph in the reform agenda made him a central personality in Ming Dynasty.

Ukiyo

Ukiyo refers to the Floating World expression used to describe the socio-economic ambitions within the Edo period 1615 to 1868. The peace and prosperity experienced in the 17th century brought moments when residents, particularly the middle class, would enjoy worldly pleasures (McGregor & Ishida, 2016). The rising middle class made overwhelmed bid by wealthy commoners to alter the social standing. It left them to watch performances from handsome actors that gradually influenced commissioning of works that satisfied their interest. The wealthy would patronize artists whose style featured subjects that wore modern fashions and hairstyles (Harris, 2012). Later, more artists embraced woodblock prints as inexpensive alternatives that improved by mid-18th century to incorporate more colors. The realization of woodblock prints involved collaborations including publisher funding the projects, artists to design images and carvers who did the production (Amsden & Seidlitz, 2014). The implementation of division of labor brought specialization that bore technical perfection later expanded in the 18th century to landscapes, legendary heroes, and themes.

Ghazi

Ghazi is the title used to refer a warrior derived from Turkish word ghazawa to mean 'he raided.' They emerged as soldiers raised by Turks to fight the Byzantines and defend Islam. Their triumph would attract warriors to create small militias that later became independent states. Ghazi meant an Islamic warrior or mercenary in Arabian, and Ottoman Empire relied upon to expand their territories (Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, Hirsch, & Johnson, 2011). Ghazis were Islamic knits who raided enemy areas. Their engagement softened the subjects and compelled them to submit to the rule. The ghazis would live off plunder and enjoy rewards for their fighting services to protect the administration. The Ottoman Sultans would address themselves using Ghazi as a title of honor and lay claim on leadership.

Akbar

Akbar is the most significant emperor of Mughal for extending the Indian sub-continent using his military, political and economic dominance. Akbar embraced the centralized administration and credited for instituting the marriage alliance policy (Farooqui, 2011). His approach to resolving religious policies won the non-Muslim subjects. Besides, he patronized art and culture by laying the foundation for a multicultural platform (Banks, 2014). He would crush opposition or force them into feeling to neighboring regions such as the Afghan who claimed the Delhi throne. The retention of supreme authority over legal, administrative and legislative scope allowed him to establish a stable and friendly empire...

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