Measles Outbreak: A Global Disease's Impact on Ohio - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1462 Words
Date:  2023-03-07


Measles is highly contagious and affect many people in case of an outbreak. Children are vaccinated at a young age to prevent them from acquiring diseases. Immunization also takes place throughout the year to ensure health safety of all people. Measles outbreak occurred in Ohio following transmission by a missionary who traveled from the Philippines.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

Description of a Chosen International Outbreak

Measles is a global disease whose outbreak can be experienced in any part of the world.

The two countries involved Measles outbreak has been experienced in Ohio and the Philippines among other countries. In Ohio, measles outbreak was experienced in 2014; however, the outbreak originated from Philippines. The source two unvaccinated Amish men whom the disease was incubating at the time of their return to the United States from the Philippines. According to Gastanaduy et al. (2016), the first case was reported on 24th March 2014 and contained on 23 July 2014 (Munde, Shrestha & Shinde, 2018). During the outbreak duration, the number of outbreaks cases amounted to 383 in Ohio. While both Philippines and the US had fought the measles through vaccination, the practice has since then decreased, and in Philippines only 66% are immunized (Munde, Shrestha & Shinde, 2018). The population has gained distrust with the vaccine. Failure to immunize children and vaccinate predisposes children to the risk of the diseases. As a result, the Philippines experienced the worst measles outbreak in the world from January 2019 to May 2019. The epidemic claimed more than 450 people and affected 33,000 cases (Munde, Shrestha & Shinde, 2018).

Epidemiological Determinants and Risk Factors

Nutrition is an epidemiological determinant of measles. Malnutrition individuals are at high risk of contracting the measles disease. Poor diet makes the immunity weak and hence predisposed to attack by any virus such as the measles virus. In their study Munde, Shrestha, and Shinde (2018) found that individuals with malnutrition were affected by the measles virus compared to the individuals who ate balanced diet. Gender is also an epidemiological factor for measles. Males are less likely to get diseases compared to females who are highly prevalent. Whether in a vaccinated case of unvaccinated cases, the females are more likely to get the disease compared to their male counterparts. Risk factors for measles include immune-compromised individuals, unvaccinated individuals, and vitamin A deficiency. Being unvaccinated is the main reason why measles is transmitted from one person to another. An unvaccinated person is 90% likely to get the disease if exposed to the virus (Munde, Shrestha & Shinde, 2018).

Age is also a risk factor. Children who are very young and have not reached the age of vaccination are at high risk of getting the disease. Hence, when traveling, they are likely to get measles, and the best practice would be to vaccinate them at the age of 6 to 11 months rather than the recommended 12 to 15 months. According to Munde, Shrestha and Shinde (2018) children at the age of 1 to 5 years are more likely to get the disease compared to other generations. Moreover, the aged are at risk of getting measles since their immunity is low and can be infected easily. Medical reasons are also risk factors. Individuals under certain drugs such as those containing high doses of steroids are at a greater risk of getting the disease. Besides, people undergoing cancer chemotherapy are also at an increased risk of getting measles. The primary reason why a medical condition is a risk factor is that such individuals cannot be vaccinated with the MMR vaccine. Vaccinating such individuals would compromise their immune system hence leading to more complications.

Moreover, individuals with other diseases such as HIV/AIDS have compromised immunity. The body is fighting the virus and when exposed to the measles virus, they will be more likely to get infected. The best way to prevent the spread and infection by the measles virus is to keep away from the risk factors and ensure proper management.

Route of Transmission

Measles is a contagious disease that becomes transmitted when a person coughs, leaving the virus droplets, which gets into contact with an unvaccinated person. When a person coughs, sneezes or talks, the virus can spread from the host to another person who then becomes infected after exposure. The virus can stay on the surface for about 2 hours, and any unvaccinated person who comes into contact with the virus gets the diseases (Munde, Shrestha & Shinde, 2018). In Ohio, the missionary from Philippines went to a church function, which was celebrated in a person's house. Many people who attended the function were later diagnosed with measles implying that they got the virus from the missionary.

Impact in My Community at a Systems Level

The infection by measles would have far-reaching effects in the community. In case death occurs, the community is left mourning their loved ones. Besides, measles can take the lives of prominent individuals who could be of great importance to the community. Hence, the loss of such individuals would be a massive loss to the entire country. The local government, businesses and the functioning of the school become affected. The government has to spend vast amounts of cash to take care of the patients and delivering medicines to cure the suffering individuals. Also, the government has to put measures and strategies to curb the spread of the disease, and this involves resources for facilitation. Many people become admitted to the hospital, and this often strains the facilities.

In most cases, the number of patients lacks the accommodation spaces, and the nurses have to look for ways to accommodate them. The task of finding a place to accommodate patients who are critically ill is complicated. Also, the nurses to offer care to the high number of patients become strained. The overall effect is a crisis in the hospitals, local government, and the community.

Reporting Protocol for an Outbreak in My Community

Many states have legislation related to infectious disease reporting protocol. The disease does not spread over a wide area hence affecting large group of people. Various countries have put in place policy measures to control the spread of measles and other infectious diseases into their country. Often, lack of proper regulation of entry into and out of the country is the primary cause of spread of the disease. For instance, the migration of the missionary from Philippines to Ohio would have been monitored, and he would not have been allowed to enter the state with incidence of measles. Hence, putting in place regulation and policy measures are critical in ensuring that the spread has been curbed. The Government of Ohio, through the department of health has put policies that stipulate that every child going to school, must be vaccinated two doses of MMR vaccine prior. This will ensure that all children going to school are vaccinated.

Two Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak in My Community

Measles outbreak can be fatal and hence the need to adopt measures that will prevent its further spread and future occurrence. According to Gastanaduy et al. (2016), vaccination remains the primary preventive intervention of the disease. Therefore, the surest way to effectively prevent the spread of measles is through immunization and vaccination. Vaccination should be intense at the border to ensure that those migrating are vaccinated against measles. Through this intervention, every person moving in and out of the country will not spread diseases as it happened with the missionary moving from the Philippines to Ohio. In case an infected person is noted, treatment should be initiated immediately and spread prevented through segregation of the individual.

While vaccination is the key preventive measure for the control of measles, community education strategies are also useful in creating preparedness and preventing the spread of the disease. Knowledge is power, and educate people about how to prepare themselves and behave in case of the measles outbreak is essential. Such a practice would help in preventing people from contracting the diseases and even from spreading. The education of the communities should be coupled with the surveillance at the border and throughout the country to ensure that citizens are updated about any outbreaks or predisposing conditions.


Gastanaduy, P., Budd, J., Fisher, N., Redd, S., Fletcher, J..., & DiOrio, M. (2016). A Measles Outbreak in an Underimmunized Amish Community in Ohio. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(14), 1343-1354. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1602295

Government of Ohio. Ohio Department of Health. (Year). IDCM Section 3: Measles - Ohio Department of Health. Retrieved from

AYSMunde, P., Shrestha, D., & Shinde, R. (2018). Evaluation of Epidemiological Determinants Influencing Measles among Children with History of Measles Vaccination. International Journal Of Medicine And Public Health, 8(3), 116-118. doi: 10.5530/ijmedph.2018.3.25

Cite this page

Measles Outbreak: A Global Disease's Impact on Ohio - Essay Sample. (2023, Mar 07). Retrieved from

Free essays can be submitted by anyone,

so we do not vouch for their quality

Want a quality guarantee?
Order from one of our vetted writers instead

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the ProEssays website, please click below to request its removal:

didn't find image

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience and 25% off!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism