The discovery that researchers and teachers have made is that determining the best teaching programs is the only way to guarantee efficient language learning by students. Also, based on the same learning strategy, students exhibit disparities in achieving the success in learning; apparently, some students have better learning capabilities than fellow students. Cooperation between students and their teachers is necessary since learning is indeed a two-way interaction. Therefore, these learning programs seem to be initiated by two interlinked concepts that include acquiring a new language and mental processes. The literature review presented below aims to discuss the strategies of language learning, experiences and perception of learner's independent vocabulary learning and understanding their self-esteem in regards to these language learning frameworks.
2.2. Vocabulary knowledge
In his work, Luu Trong Tuan (2011) indicates that vocabulary is a module that establishes a connection between the capabilities of listening, writing, speaking and reading, and therefore, learners have the ability to use the four skills to learn a language (Schmitt, 2010). Tuan (2011) explains further that vocabulary gets relevant to a learner in the sense that it develops the competence of a dialect or rather indicates mastery of a language due to the increased vocabulary in a student's language. However, vocabulary knowledge has been a challenge to students and thus, prompted much attention to the lexicon in research or second language learning (Kalajahi & Pourshahian, 2012).
Mostly, Teng Feng (2015) proposes that mastery of words is a gradual process that comprises of some sub-phases, whereby one of the phases is focused on lexical introduction. For example, lexical knowledge can be improved and perfected, and this is what is missing in among English language learners. That is to mean that, the reduced cover of vocabulary creates a barrier for students to participate in a comprehensive reading course, and subsequently, require intervention to develop a rich vocabulary (Feng, 2015). Nevertheless, Tuan (2011) adds that their amount of lexicon words available to students is a lot to be mastered all at once within teaching time. Besides, there is a high demand for autonomous and responsibility from students.
Therefore, with the evolution of policies of language (LLS) researchers have made efforts to relate these actions plans with capabilities of language learning with the agenda to improve the learning of vocabulary (Kalahaji & Pourshahan, 2012). Also, there are claims that majority of the concept of language are applied for the accomplishment of activities in learning vocabulary. It is important then to establish strategies for vocabulary learning (VLS) that are components of the general language learning concepts, and they have a positive impact on learning the language successfully (Schmitt, 2010).
According to Nation (2005), it is the significant approach that learners initiate personal VLS by sensitization to the programs of vocabulary, the reflection of appropriate learning procedures and motivation of intellectual mastery of the dictionary. Besides, that acquiring a second language is fundamentally dependent on the potential advancement of vocabulary, and this sub-discipline, the previous literature indicates there is more emphasis on learners of a second language to have their knowledge in vocabulary optimized (Schmitt, 2000).
Moreover, acquisition of vocabulary has two key frameworks as proposed by Teng (2015) and these include deliberate learning and secondary learning. A review of the literature shows as in the case of Paribakht and Wesche (1997) that conscious vocabulary mastery has been reinforced because it was a more efficient approach compared to subsidiary learning of vocabulary. However, due to the short time allocation of class sessions for the intended and straightforward teaching of the word by word, research indicates that secondary mastery of vocabulary has been a better option. Primarily, incidental learning comes as a by-product during education undertakings (Hulstijn, 2001), and thus, considerably, when students make an effort to comprehend the meaning of the subject, then vocabularies are acquired subconsciously (Teng, 2015).
Many authors seem to agree that most of the studies conducted on the implications of important reading are linked to secondary learning of vocabulary (Horst, 2005; Webb, 2008). Notwithstanding, an incidental gain of a lexicon is restricted as discussed by Teng (2014b) and consequently, other components that influence the gain of vocabulary have been brought forward, for example, understanding of topics, the degree of acquisition, strategies and allocated time for learning (Teng, 2015).
2.3. Vocabulary Learning Strategies
2.3.1. Theories of Vocabulary Learning
According to the findings of Mania Nosratinia and coworkers (2013), the students of foreign languages are prompted to use several approaches to gain the knowledge of the actual language word. The main reason has been emphasized by Nation (2005) that despite the effort of teachers and guidance from the course books, eventually, it is the students that do the learning. That is to say that, it is estimated that it is from the learners position that challenges of small vocabularies can be underpinned, and ultimately, the students goals will assess the effectiveness of the process of mastery involved. Although learners of language have ideas of the importance of lexicon words in a language, they may be unaware of the vocabulary learning policies (VLS) that could assist them in the acquisition of vocabularies actually (Kalajahi & Pourshahian, 2011).
Therefore, according to Nation (1990), the most appropriate method to gain vocabulary is for the students to initiate their independent concepts. Furthermore, instructing on vocabulary mastery is viewed as a component of the vocabulary advancement program. Subsequently, Schmitt and Schmitt (1995) recommends that an effective teaching procedure for vocabulary would be to present several VLS to students and then they can make the judgment on which strategy they prefer. It is important to appreciate the students need for evolving personal knowledge of VLS (Kalajahi & Pourshahian, 2011).
Concepts of vocabulary learning have been described by Intaraprasert (2005) as A group of skills or learning characteristics that language students applied so as to derive the meaning of complex and new terms, to preserve that knowledge gained from understanding the words as well as to broaden their skills of vocabulary (p.165).
However, Nosratinia et al. (2013) discuss the two distinct concepts as part of the comprehensive list of strategies of lexicon acquisition advanced by Schmitt (1997). On the one hand there is the idea to assess the explanation of new words which have been experienced for the first time, and on the other hand, words that would reinforce the meaning when they are experienced again. Apparently, the first policy is comprised of strategies of both social and determination, while the latter concept is concerned with strategies of psychological, memory, metacognitive and social (Nosratinia et al. 2013).
2.3.2. Vocabulary learning approaches
According to Tuan (2011), there are three major approaches to learning and instruction of vocabulary as postulated by Hunt and Beglar (2002) which are as follows:
Incidental vocabulary learning
As explained above in the literature review, deliberate learning of lexicon is an important approach for gaining vocabulary (Teng, 2015; Hulstijn, 2001; Nation, 2001). In details, the framework ensures that dictionary skills can be acquired indirectly, through participating in language activities. For example, activities like conversations, listening to music and stories; watching television, etc. (Nation, 2001). In other words, intended mastery of vocabulary is usually in context studying of words.
Comprehensive study of vocabulary
This refers to a conventional way of teaching lexicon or new words. Tuan (2011) discusses that the approach precisely teaches learners to focus entirely on undertakings in which there is the clear gain of vocabulary. In the words of Nation (1990), it is a quick method that enables increase the size of vocabulary between learners of a second language and native speakers. In other words, a comprehensive, direct or explicit study of vocabulary is an approach for gaining lexicon via techniques that cause the learner to focus on immediate contact with the structure and explanation of words, for example, use of translations, dictionaries or semantic mapping among others. Furthermore, this framework not only provides the proper chance to learn but also contributing to the development of vocabulary particularly to primary learners, those with reduced exposure to the deliberate gain of vocabulary at school and students with limited skills in reading vocabulary (Tuan, 2011).
Independent concept advancement
This approach is essentially concerned with learning where students reckon from the situation as well as instruct learners with a use of the dictionary. Nunan (1999) demonstrates that it is better to learn language from a contextual meaning and gain. Therefore, teachers should need to assist learners to concentrate on initiating policies for determining the interpretation of some lexical elements on a contextual basis that which has been suggested individually. There is also the encouragement part for learners such as using diagrams, clues, verbal affixes and much more, to investigate the meaning ( Tuan, 2011).
2.3.3. Vocabulary learning strategies
The categories of VLS have been every researcher's task for example after Oxford (1990) developed the strategies for language learning (LLS), many scientists have soon tried to come up a classification of the concepts for learning vocabulary (Kalahaji & Pourshahian, 2012). However, due to the extensive use of the Kudo's classification of VLS, its adoption in research has been purposeful. Also, Kalahaji and Pourshahian (2012) indicate that Kudo's classification can be normalized for purposes of evaluations. That is to be used to collect language learners' responses, is founded on the concepts of language learning including principles of memory, it also integrates single technology and among other advantages, can be applied to all learners despite their educational history (Celik & Toptas, 2010). Besides, Kudo's research (1999) was a combination of reminiscence and understanding action plans that brought about strategies of psycholinguistics, social and metacognition. Consequently, there was metacognitive concepts due to an analysis of investigative factors but left out determination procedures as a result (Kalahaji & Pourshahian, 2012).
A review of the literature shows that Kudo embraced LLS interpretations of Schmitt (1997) and affirmed that memory action plans, conventionally referred to as mnemonics, form a part of the strategies of consolidation. For instance, links a lexical item to some past understanding, and these could pictures that have explanations of words or even associating words from the other language known to the learner. Other examples of strategies of recollection are operating on separate categories of words or classifying terms such as synonyms.
The mnemonic strategy can be applied to phonological word structures such that language learners can determine the pronunciation or even spelling of words, so as to construct the impression of the word permanently into memory (Tuan, 2011). Nevertheless, it is productive also to use affixes, classes of words and roots that are resourceful in integrating the explanation of words (Kalahaji &am...
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