Literature Review on Elder Abuse

Date:  2021-09-01 08:55:25
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Blowers et al. first state that elder abuse is a universal problem that requires the attention of all policymakers, the public, health care systems, and social welfare agencies among others. The authors focus on key elder abuse issues from an international perspective. Through focusing on population-based studies, the article provides a valid, detailed, in-depth and reliable analysis of the current knowledge regarding elder abuse. The authors provide five strategies for preventing elder abuse. The interventions provided include caregiver interventions, money management programs, helplines, emergency shelters and multidisciplinary teams. The article ends with a further but brief discussion on multidisciplinary approach in dealing with elder mistreatment. This is a general article. The article does not take sides and is not biased at all. All facts are presented well and everything is factual. The article is well balanced and does not take any sides. A.N. Blowers is a lecturer in North Carolina University (Charlotte).

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Burnes D. Pillemer K. Caccamise P. Mason A. Henderson C. R., & Lachs M. S. (2015). Prevalence of and risk factors for elder abuse and neglect in the community: A population-based study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS), 65, 1906-1912.

The authors of this study try to estimate the prevalence and protective factors regarding the emotional, physical, and financial abuse among elders. It also looks at neglect. The research is based in New York and includes 4,156 participants older than sixty years. The results indicate that 1.9% have been abused emotionally, 1.8% have been abused physically, and 1.8% have been neglected while the aggregate prevalence is at 1.8%. The authors state that eelder abuse is a major public health concern. They add that it is likely that all prevalence rates are underestimated. Some of the causes of elder abuse include lack of education and culture about aging and old age. Lack of promotion of rights and information. Lack of effective mechanisms for the detection of situations of abuse. The omission of complaints. Lack of a defense system for the elderly. Lack of recognition and respect of society to the elderly. Many strategies have been applied to prevent elder abuse, adopt measures to combat it and mitigate its consequences. Among the interventions that have been implemented -mainly in high-income countries- to prevent abuse, the following can be mentioned: awareness campaigns for the public and professionals; detection (of possible victims and aggressors); intergenerational programs in schools; interventions to support caregivers (for example, stress management, respite care); policies on residential care to define and improve the level of care; and training about dementia directed to caregivers. This is an academic article. Although the article is not biased, it is generally unbalanced since it does not consider both points of view equally. Burnes D. is a lecturer at University of Toronto Canada and holds a PhD.

Gil A. P. Kislaya I. Santos A. J. Nunes B. Nicolau R., & Fernandes A. A. (2015). Elder abuse in Portugal: Findings from the first national prevalence study. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 27, 174195.

The authors of the article present findings regarding elder abuse in Portugal. The participants are 1,123 over a 12-month period. The authors state that elder abuse is considered a worldwide social phenomenon problem. However, it is not recognized and is underestimated in all its senses. Although its causes are not established with precision, the scarce investigations show that there is a high percentage of abuse, especially at the intrafamily level. They define elder abuse as any act or omission that produces damage, intentional or not, practiced on persons 65 years of age and older, that occurs in the family, community and institutional environment. The act violates or puts into danger physical, mental, sexual integrity; as well as the principle of autonomy and rest of the fundamental rights of the elderly, objectively evident or perceived subjectively. The authors conclude by saying it is necessary to improve at a professional level and as a society the knowledge and sensitivity towards the mistreatment towards the elderly. Besides, actions should be promoted that help provide a good deal to this group, especially in cases of dependency and greater vulnerability. It is necessary to equip ourselves with specialized structures and equipment that can provide comprehensive care to the elderly in situations of abuse. This is an academic article. Ana, one of the authors, and is a PhD holder and works at National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal. All the other authors are PhD holders. The article is balanced and unbiased. It is unopiniated and the authors present facts only.

Heck L. & Gillespie G. L. (2013). Interprofessional program to provide emergency sheltering to abused elders. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 35, 170181.

The authors state that data on the extent of the problem in institutional establishments such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care centers are scarce. However, a survey of nursing home staff in the United States of America points to the possibility of high rates: 36% had witnessed at least one incident of physical abuse against an elderly patient in the previous year; 10% had committed at least one act of physical abuse against an elderly patient; 40% admitted having psychologically mistreated patients. In such establishments, abusive acts are committed such as handcuffing patients, threatening their dignity (for example, by not changing their dirty clothes) and preventing them from making their own decisions in the affairs of daily life. Others involve deliberately denying them good assistance (for example, by allowing decubitus ulcers to form, offering them excessive or insufficient medication, and retaining the medication they need, and neglecting or subjecting them to emotional abuse. The authors conclude by stating it is essential to observe the long-term consequences that having suffered abuse has for the older person. Accompanying the recovery of these people is also a critical task within the circuit of prevention, detection, and intervention. This is an academic article. It is not unbiased, the authors use words with neutral connotation and the writing is highly actual. It is balanced and the authors present a balanced writing.

Navarro A. E. Gassoumis Z. D. & Wilber K. H. (2013). Holding abusers accountable: An elder abuse forensic center increases criminal prosecution of financial exploitation. The Gerontologist, 53, 303312.

The authors state that although elder cases are many, these cares are not prosecuted. The authors try to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center where guilty people will be charged. The authors state that there are various forms of elder abuse. The first one is physical abuse, which is characterized by bodily harm, pain or physical deterioration due to physical force or violence. Examples include use and administration of inappropriate drugs, forced feeding and punishment. Other forms of physical abuse include punches, kicks, slaps, pushes, and slapping. The second type is psychological abuse which entails causing intentional harm, anguish or stress through verbal or non-verbal acts, such as threats, insults, intimidation, humiliation, treat and talk to the elder as a child (infantilism), isolation from the family, environment, friends and their activities, and subjecting him/her to the silent treatment. The third one is sexual abuse, which involves sexual contact, of any intentional type or consummated, not consented or with people unable to give their consent. The fourth type is financial / patrimonial abuse. It is the illegal or inappropriate use of funds, property and other resources of the elderly, includes money, without authorization or permission, forgery of signatures, donation or obligation of guardianship or curatorship. The authors recognize the need to have a forensic center to curb financial exploitation of elders. The authors conclude by saying that although several innovative programs have been formulated, elder abuse is still hidden and this leaves the problem unrecognized, let alone investigated or prosecuted. The article is general. The article is unbiased and balanced. The authors are concise, use concise text evidence and quotations and use formal writings. The authors support their ideas with specific details and presents evidence and facts. The authors are all PhD holders. Adria works at the department of Graduate Social Work, School of Behavioral and Applied Sciences, Azusa Pacific University while Zachary and Kathleen work at Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

References

Amstadter A. B. Zajac K. Strachan M. Hernandez M. A. Kilpatrick D. G., & Acierno R. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment in South Carolina: The South Carolina elder mistreatment study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 29472972.

Blowers A. N. Davis B. Shenk D. Kalaw K. Smith M., & Jackson K. (2012). A multidisciplinary approach to detecting and responding to elder mistreatment: Cre...

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