Policy instruments 5
Command and control 5
Voluntary regulation 7
Market-based instruments 8
Legislative Approach Taken To Control Waste Water in Trinidad and Tobago and That Taken In South Korea
With the rapidly increasing human population globally, the need to enhance the industrial intensification tends to increase. For instance, the need for food is directly proportional to the population size. There exists a reason therefore to increase the number of industries that facilitate production as a way of ensuring that the food supply is adequate. However, the increase in the number of industries comes along with a number of challenges. The scenario is expected since it is quite difficult different strategies into practice without coming across some negative impacts in the course of the operation.
Trinidad and Tobago is an Island with a small population. The fact about the country is that it encounters a constant water supply. It is a greatly industrialized and rapidly developing country. Consequently, a number of pollutants and the demands on the supplies are rising at a fast rate. The issue regarding water, therefore, concerns both the amounts and the quality (Paisley, R.K., and Henshaw, T.W., 2014, p.203). The intention here is, however, to minimize and control additional pollution as well as clean up the water that is already polluted. It is at this point that the European Union, as well as the United States, comes in to help the country by coming up with some strategies to help the country meet its expectations regarding the water sources using three fundamental environmental policy categories.
South Korea, on the other hand, is among the four young dragons in Asia. Despite being little, it resembles Trinidad and Tobago in that has experienced a rise in a number of waste releases resulting from its economical take offs from the 1990s.The government initially had the plan of building up about nine incineration machines in Seoul. Due to the opposition of the same by the public, all it could afford to do is nothing more than empowering the waste minimization policy. Strategies had to be implemented therefore in order to ensure that the policy is adhered to by the rest of the public.
It is often referred to as the standards and regulations strategies and enhances both the primary as well as the subsidiary legislations. Voluntary instruments are often referred to as moral suasion and they refer to the public awareness together with capacity building. Finally, there exists the market based which is commonly referred to as the pricing and quantity instruments. It refers to the financial strategies enforced with the intention of making allocations to the more environmentally sustainable behaviors among individual persons as well as entities. Such entities include green project funding deposit refund systems.
Command and Control
In response to the issue of controlling waste water, Trinidad and Tobago implements the Water Pollution Rules by EMA. The intention of implementing the rules is to deal with the pollution problems from point source discharges. The demand by the rules is that the particular persons identified to be water polluters should register with the Water Pollution Rules authority. It is at this point that they are given the necessary information regarding the amount of pollution in the country (Rice, B.R., 2014, p.1915).
The outcome of the registration procedure implementation is that it has offered guidance towards the selection of the most important watersheds worth consideration regarding the issuance of the permits of water release. The outcome of the execution of such rule has seen the pollution levels in the country decrease drastically as no discharges are made without the consent of the authority.
Different from other countries of the globe, the regulations of command and control persisted being the dominating instrument of choice by the country of Trinidad and Tobago with the intention to achieve public policy objectives. The persistence went on until the 1990s. The laws concerning environment were set up without any unifying framework for guidance. Trinidad and Tobago's EPI landscape, however, became disjointed and ineffective around the mid-nineties. The major problem with the country was that a number of EPIs was not efficiently enforced. The reasons behind it could be the lack of enough resources needed to take necessary action and the unavailability of appreciation regarding the essentiality of the environmental laws. As well, most of the laws looked ambiguous to attempt enforcing then those that were quite clear had serious penalties. It is at this point that the U.S. government has been of great assistance through the facilitation of the Green Fund. It is a national environmental fund that serves to aid many certified environmental activities (SAFAYA, M.K.W.N.M., and EVRENDILEK, F., 2002, p.1).
The country itself has enhanced the implementation of the water rules as part of its contribution towards the struggle for the improvement of the quality of services as well as the safety of its citizens. The major reason behind the introduction of The Water Rules is to minimize the number of water pollutants in the point sources discharges. To facilitate this, the country gains guidance from two major processes under the rules. It begins with source registration then permission of water pollution. The former refers to the process in which an application is done to determine whether the facility in question meets the requirements by the WPR in trying to release the water pollutants.
The procedure of registration is set to begin with the instruments discharging the effluents, followed by the submission of an application form then by the payment of prescribed fees The process of getting permission from the authority helps to manage and reduce the quantity of concentration of the effluents with the intention that they meet the levels allowed extents as per the second WPR schedule. The permit refers a license for a firm to release certain types of water effluents at specified concentrations from authorized outfalls into the water receiving body.
South Korea, on the other hand, has also put in place policies to empower the implementation of charges regarding the municipal solid waste (MSW). It has helped reduce the rate of disposal gradually. The economic benefit has however risen. It is through the implementation of the Per Bag Trash Collection system that people are expected to make their garbage disposals using prepaid garbage bags. The items for disposal that are recyclable are disposed of using different containers and no charges apply for such. The government could not stop at such through because there was the need to introduce the necessary measures to complement the system of fee collection for the Per Bag Trash. Both the two countries, therefore, have the same idea of reducing the waste releases even though they used different strategies to enhance its implementation.
It entails educating people on the need to conserve the environment as well as the importance that comes along with it. The EMA raises awareness and keeps encouraging valuable attitudes towards the environment. It also utilizes the media in spreading the information regarding the same. The Department of the Corporate and communications and that of Public Education facilitates the communication of the message across Trinidad and Tobago regarding issues to do with the environment. The avenues employed in this case include the use of print materials which includes brochures and booklets, posters, ad newspaper advertisements (Paisley, R.K., and Henshaw, T.W., 2014, p.203).
Trinidad and Tobago facilitate public awareness through the implementation of the policy meant to enhance the advertisement of public meetings at a frequent interval. The requirement is that it should be done at least once a week with the advertisement covering not less than 25 percent of a page. It enhances awareness to the public on the need to preserve the environment as well as its importance. Upon the understanding, they can do it without having to be pressured. It also takes over the responsibility of arranging for tours to various places as well as enhancing nationwide competitions to intensify the awareness. Its effort can be seen through its establishment of an Environmental Club Program. It intends to intensify their campaigns by adding establishing a Youth Ambassadors Program. The reason for doing this is to enhance the development together with the enforcement of environmental legislation which is done through the encouragement of voluntary compliance as well as the use of financial and other incentives. The government ensures that people understand their rights as well as the need to implement the policies. It informs the people regarding the decisions related to environmental conservation as well as the need to take strategic measures in facilitating protection from risks related to chemicals.
The Korean, on the other hand, came up with strategies to facilitate the Per Bag Trash Collection Fee system. The strategies can be categorized into different types. The voluntary aspect is important as it ensures that people implement the policies without being forced to do so. It is, therefore, important to inform them of the need to do so as well as the results that come as a result of the same. In line with this, the government of South Korea is enhancing a serious awareness. The objective is to educate the public regarding the ways of categorizing the recyclables and using the designated garbage bags as well as educating them on the need to reduce wastes.
The government established policies to facilitate the development of the Eco-tourism ability in the country as well as the other projects related to it. It, therefore, started focusing its strengths in developing its tourism sector over a number of years back. The need to attract tourists helps to ensure that there is consistent water supply so that it becomes a favorable scene for the tourists to have fun in a place that looks cool. The presence of tourism would help a lot particularly in the duty of government tax generation in the course exchanges taking place when they transfer their currency into that of the country Trinidad and Tobago. The country, therefore, tried conserving water with the idea in mind of attracting the tourists.
For the tourism industry to do well, the government had to point out the natural resources that could be used to attract the tourists and make them competitive in consideration of the international market. The favorable factors that facilitated this include the exotic flora and fauna's diversity that ranges from mangrove forest and rainforest to the swamps of freshwater and coral reefs as well as mammals.
No action had been taken to the proposals made from the 1980s. The United has facilitated action to be taken regarding the same by being the source of tourists to the country. The countries such as North America, Latin America, among the other parts of the globe are the sources for tourists with the interest in the rainforest and the different varieties of reptiles, monkeys, snakes, and even the plants and flower species existing there. The United State...
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