Specificity of Addictions
The article by Sussman et al. (2011) seeks to evaluate the phenomenon of addiction specificity where one addictive pattern can be gained while another cannot. The article presents the PACE model in which the researchers discuss pragmatic, attractions, communications and expectations (PACE) as a framework to explain the specificity of addition. According to the article, the definition of addiction has broadened over the years from referring to psychological processes which relate to drug abuse to including biopsychosocial syndrome with similarities over different behaviors. A pronounced feature of the addictive methods involves the performance of specific actions for instance working, gambling, continuous drug abuse or binge eating. The article argues that there may be a definitive pattern of being prone to addiction, but there is some co-occurrence in addictive behaviors. The researchers present data and findings from different authors demonstrating the co-occurrence of certain addictive behaviors among individuals. For instance, smoking addiction has been strongly linked to gambling addiction while addiction to exercise have been linked to shopping, work, and eating.
However, the article points out inadequate research regarding addiction specificity. Addiction specificity is termed as a concept where some individuals are prone to addictions while others are not. As the researchers argue, no model has been presented to explain the phenomenon of addiction specificity. Pragmatic as one of the variables put forward in the report comprises of four aspects. They are supply and availability of addiction of items, awareness, acquisition skills and exchange. The second variable in the model being attraction which plays a vital role in initiating and continuation of the addiction problem. Differences in individuals play an essential role in getting attracted to certain behaviors. The other two variables in the model are communication and expectations. Disparaging expectations from different individuals may result in addiction specificity. Thus, PACE model can be used to explain some individual being prone to addiction.
Information in the research is well outlined, and critical areas well explained with examples being used to articulate the addiction challenge. The information provided in the article is well detailed thus keeping the reader well informed. However, the journal article is not straightforward which might deter potential readers. There is the need to have a more concise approach in detailing the information. In conclusion, the article articulates well the addiction phenomenon and the PACE model put forward could help in understanding and fighting addiction.
In his article, Furlich (2016) discusses employees' performance as an influence of communication. Form the abstract and introduction; the author argues that motivation and the expected rewards influence employee's performances. The article proposes the utilization of expected valence model as a means of overcoming barriers encountered while trying to understand employees' motivation, an important area in my field of study. Overcoming the barriers could be achieved by evaluating the relationship as well as communication between managers and the employees. Furlich notes that various researchers have been ignoring the context and valence of interaction between managers and employs. As such, the article puts forward the expectancy-valence model as a means of evaluating such variables.
Furlich indicates that employees' output has been observed to improve when motivated. Motivated employees seem to be satisfied with jobs than their demotivated counterparts. The article discusses the various forms of rewards an employee may expect from the manager and sites different examples in the such as monetary rewards, promotion or compliments. By employing the expectancy-valence model, the article argues, could help understand the employee's expectations. Understanding employee expectation can contribute to developing better motivations for employees thereby maximizing on their potential. Furlich goes further to state that communications play a crucial role in employees' motivation. Since managers communicate motivation messages, it is essential for them to provide clear communications. The essence of motivation seems associated with organizational culture. The author cites an example where an employee is motivation is more likely to increase if a bond is created within the organization. Therefore, Furlich advocates for the use of valence expectancy model to improve understanding of manager-employee relations and its influence on reward expectancy.
Furlich's article is well detailed and precise regarding the significant point discussed. The author employed use of well pointed out examples which clarifies essential issues outlined in the report. As the author illustrates in the proposed expectancy model, a complete understanding of employee expectation will go a long way towards maximizing on their potential. Maximizing potential can be achieved by improving the organizational bond as well as communications between the two parties. The major shortcoming identified in the article is the inadequate statistical data and minute details about the expectancy-valence model as an improvement of previous research.
Saxena (2014) analyzes how the productivity of an organization is affected by its workforce diversity. The author defines workforce diversity as the differences and similarities in the company workforce with regards to cultural background, physical abilities, age, sexual orientation, and gender. The article goes further to state the essence of the diversified workforce on a company and provides an analysis of the workforce on productivity. The diversified workforce can be challenging to manage hence the importance of understanding the aspect of diversification in a workforce to improve productivity. As the author points out, there have been fundamental changes in world economies. Interdependencies among different businesses from various backgrounds and countries as seen in the current global economy call for the need of employing a diversified workforce. The workforce is an essential resource for organizations and plays a critical role in achieving a company's goals. Thus, there is a need to gain a better understanding of the workforce for easier management and productivity.
In the article, the others point out that organizational set up of different companies have become increasingly diversified mainly due to globalization and liberalization. Saxena indicates that management of diversified workforce as one of the biggest challenges facing the human resources department of different companies. The argument put forward by the author is that every individual is different which affects the interpersonal relationship in a specific organizational. A close interpersonal relationship among company employees can be a driving factor in achieving the company goals and improve productivity. Through a series of examples, the author emphasizes the essence of companies effectively managing the workforce. Also, despite the challenges presented by a diversified workforce the author provides advantages provided by such a workforce. As per the article, diversified workforce improves the competitiveness of a company and is driving force for innovations. It also has a pool of diversified skills in addition to improved problem-solving.
The article is concise, clear and well written which motivate the potential reader. It brings out the effect of a diversified workforce and ways of enhancing productivity. However, it is worth noting that additional examples could be particularly useful in illustrating the impact of a diversified workforce. As pointed out in the article employing a diversified workforce is a challenging task but if effectively utilized can increase company productivity. It can also help an organization to fit in the ever-dynamic economy fueled by globalization.
Furlich, S. (2016). Understanding employee motivation through managerial communication using expectancy. Journal of Integrated Social Sciences, 6(1), 17-37. http://www.jiss.org/documents/volume_6/JISS%202016%206(1)%2017-37%20Employee%20Motivation.pdf
Saxena, A. (2014). Workforce diversity: A key to Improve Productivity. Journal of Economics and Finance, 11, 76-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00178-6
Sussman, S., Leventhal, A., Freithmuth, R., Ames, M., Bluethenal, M & Foster, (2011). Framework for Specificity of Addictions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(8), 3399-3415. https://10.3390/ijerph8083399
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