Inequality in Education Annotated Bibliography

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1791 Words
Date:  2022-09-22

Introduction

Inequality in education is caused by various factors the determine the disparity in the quality of education between schools in varied areas and circumstances. Economic and social differences are believed to be the most comprehensive causes of the disparities in education resulting in inequalities. The study documented below analyzes the information availed by different authors through materials whose summary constitute the annotated bibliography.

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Among the issues discussed, the financial capacity of the parents and guardians of the children affects their access to education. Issues such as race also interfere with access to education. Furthermore, the experience of the educators is a significant cause of the disparity in quality of education. Notably, the mere accessibility of the school infrastructure is an indicator of the differences between different geographical locations in terms of the exposure of the children to high-quality education. Thus, the annotated bibliography provides a discussion of the literature that addresses the challenge of education inequality.

Bertocchi, Graziella, and Arcangelo Dimico. "Slavery, Education, and Inequality." European Economic Review 70 (2014): 1-30.

The authors of the article addressed the impact of slavery on the income disparities in the American society which in turn, has translated to the differences in quality of education. They came up with three major conclusions based on their research. First of all, they concluded that slavery affected the income inequality in the US. Secondly, the concluded that slavery caused inequality due to the differences in race. The third conclusion was that the main channel of the transmission of the inequality was through human capital accumulation. The researchers noted that there exist income inequalities between different counties in the US. Additionally, they acknowledged that the African American race is the largest victim of the income inequalities. For instance, most of the salves in the years around 1860 were black people. Therefore, the position of the African Americans in society has seldom changed with many employers offering them meager salaries. The author link human capital accumulation to the issue in that they recognize that since the African Americans we rapid lowly, they could not afford appreciable education quality for their children as they took them to low-ranking schools. The low-quality education has therefore trickled through the African American race.

Brittain, John, and Kozlak, Callie. "Racial Disparities in Educational Opportunities in the United States." Seattle Journal for Social Justice 6.2 (2007): 594-625.

The authors of the article focused on the implication of racial differences in the disparities in education quality. They singled out the Brown vs. Board of Education case of 1954 as a point of reference. The case's ruling declared that the setting up of different schools for the white and black children was unconstitutional. The outcome was the development of public and private schools that accommodated both white and black students. They state that since the ruling, the public schools have been neglected with an observable grand leading to a drop in the quality of education offered in public schools. The authors of the article have developed its content around the supposed fact that black children populate the public schools while the white students predominantly populate the private schools. According to the article, in the public schools, the students are frequently suspended. Furthermore, there is minimal attention from the tutors to the academic needs of the children. Thus, racial differences have influenced the academic potential of the children to the public and private schools populated by the black and white students respectively reinstating the inequality in education.

Musu-Gillette, Lauren., Brey, Cristobal., McFarland, Joel., Hussar, Willliam, and Sonnenberg, "William. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2017" U.S. Department of Education. (2017): 8-136.

The authors of the article utilize statistics obtained from the US Department of Education, the Institute of Education Sciences and the National Center for Education Statistics. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the races and ethnic groups under consideration in the subject analysis of the educational statistics are the whites, blacks, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian, American/Indian or Alaska natives and the Pacific Islanders. According to the research, at least two of the students with the listed racial and ethnic origin have completed high school and continue with the college and higher levels of education. Nevertheless, the study shows thatthe white students have the highest chance of constituting with father studious after high school than all the other races and ethnic groups. Additionally, the white students have a high chance of achieving high scores than the other races. On the other hand, the Asian students are regarded as the least advantaged in terms of capacity to advance. The persistent behaviors indicate that the Hispanics reported more cases of injury due to violent altercations with other students in school than the other races. It affected their achievement potential. Therefore, the ethnic and racial origin affects the capacity if the students to achieve academically.

Reardon, Sean, F. and Fahle, Erin, M. "The Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality" State of the Union 2017 (2017): 21-23.

The authors of the article sought to study the achievements made so far in the relevant sectors since the formulation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The law was intended to ensure equal access to education between the poor and non-poor African-American and white children. They acknowledge that the achievement gaps between the white-black and the white-Hispanics have reduced in the percentage of between 30 and 40. Additionally, they observe that the educational achievement in different states differs based on varied factors. For instance, the college completion rate for the Hispanic-white is approximated at 0.27 while that of the black-white is 0.38. On the other hand, they are at 0.74 and 0.76 in Colorado and West Virginia respectively. They argue that the gaps in racial achievement rates impact the educational, income, educational and employment factors forming a vicious circle. The authors note that the socioeconomic differences do not fully account for the achievement differences. They attribute the differences to the unequal access to quality schools.

Coady, David, and Allan Dizioli. "Income Inequality and Education Revisited." Income Inequality and Education Revisited: Persistence, Endogeneity, and Heterogeneity17.126 (2017): 1-23.

The authors of the article focus on the impact of income inequality the access to quality education. They adopt two perspectives; elementary education and higher learning. The article informs that the students whose parents and guardians are financially strained, they have a low chance of accessing quality education. Most of them are admitted in public schools whose delivery of high quality education is in doubt. In many cases, the schooling years of the children from low-income families are fewer as they take courses with the low study span to find jobs fast. The perspective of higher learning informs that the students with high access to financial resources have a high chance of enrolling to appreciable quality colleges and universities compared to those financially strained after high school. Thus, the authors note that the inequality in income is the most influential cause of the disparity in educational quality. They acknowledge that there is a need for the relevant stakeholders to address the issue before it escalates beyond control. The reconciliation of the income disparities is necessary to establish equality in education.

Ewert, Stephanie, Bryan L. Sykes, and Becky Pettit. "The degree of disadvantage: Incarceration and inequality in education." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 651.1 (2014): 24-43.

The authors address the relative disadvantage that the black children and adolescents have in comparison to their white counterparts in the American society. Over the last decade, the statistics have shown that the rate of dropouts from the American schools between the black and white students has been close to 50-50 ratio. However, the authors note that the estimate of the reality in the drop out ratio excludes the incarcerated population. The article states that the number of black adolescents in prisons in the USA surpasses that of the white Americans in the ratio close to 7:3. As a result, 40% of the black adolescents in prisons do no graduate high school. This is the subject disadvantage that the article covers. The above is the first approach to the issue of lack of access to quality education depending on the race under consideration.

The other perspective availed by the article informs that since the black adolescents are incarcerated while 40% do not graduate high school, their competitiveness in the labor market is reduced significantly. It explains the phenomenon in which the formerly incarcerated African Americans are unemployed. Their descendants are less likely to access high quality education.

Zeng, Junxia, et al. "Gender inequality in education in China: a metaregression analysis." Contemporary Economic Policy32.2 (2014): 474-491.

The article focuses on gender differences as a cause of disparities in access to high quality education in China. Over the years, studies have shown that the general perception regarding the impact of gender on the access to deduction has been affirmative. Reports indicate that over the past 40 years, the inequality in aces to education based on gender in China has improved significantly. The article utilizes a meta-analysis approach to compare the content of the large volume of literature that addresses the issue of gender-based educational inequality in the country. The meta-analysis provides an overview of the educational landscape in China based on time, space and different grades and ethnicities. The results o the analysis indicated that there still exists gender inequality in the attainment of education but has been reducing over the years. The differences in access to education differ in urban and rural areas. In urban areas, the girls have to attain primary and junior high school education compulsorily. On the other hand, the rural areas are most notorious in China for girls' lack of access to education. Nevertheless, for those that graduate or reach high school, the continuity of their studies is more assured.

Yeakey, Carol Camp, et al. Mitigating Inequality: Higher Education Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Massification and Stratification. Emerald Group Publishing, 2015.

The authors of the book acknowledge that over the past decade, the higher learning sector has witnessed a tremendous rise in the programs offered and the broadening of the scope of each program. However, many people across the globe lack access to higher learning facilities, meaning that a minority only experiences the development in the industry. The book, therefore, offers a mitigation mechanism to ensure the aces of education to at least 70% of the world's adults. The first suggestion is the overall reduction in the charges of enrolling and continuing with higher learning. The second suggestion is the management of the distribution of the educational facilities all over the world. According to the authors, it is only in the developed economies that universities are available in close proximity to the locals. In the underdeveloped countries, there are few and geographically separated from the locals. Thus, t...

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