For centuries the development of natural disasters has incapacitated the people the control over it. Natural disasters have been on the rise from lack of control over it. Due to this uncontrollable factor from the climatic changes, the results from its occurrence have been worse. Many distractions have taken place and worst; a high number of people have perished. Hurricanes, which are basically devious and massive when it develops fully to a high height is hazardous in its nature. With scientist in their studies trying to put their effort in finding solutions to take control over it, no success has been realized.
A hurricane is a spiral tropical cyclone that rotates in clockwise rapidly with speed in a that direction while it gains energy. It is a storm which is formed in large water bodies where high evaporation takes place due to the warmth of the water mostly at nights and is greatly influenced by the high wind currents. In the large water bodies of the earth, hurricanes can only form itself in two oceans; the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. It has a center with a low gravitated force and pressure, which enforce circulation of the strong winds to propel and produce rain. They can cover a large area which could be between a 100 to 2000 km. This wide diameter is a result of the large water body where they have been formed. They are stronger in the coastal regions, areas where they can generate waves and tornadoes as compared to the inland regions where its energy is cut off due to a high pressure and no water body to make evaporation take place. In the middle region of the hurricane, air tends to move inwards rather than outwards, which creates a circular shape which is the eye of the hurricane of a length of about 30 to 65 km.
Warning signs of hurricanes
Signs of a hurricane are clearly recorded through changes of climatic condition. These factors are changing wind patterns, heavy rains along the coastal regions formed by high evaporation rate and an increased cloud formation. This factor rises as the hurricane approaches towards the inland areas. In the world, the occurrence of the hurricane is popular during the summer when there is a huge temperature change between the land and sea. It occurs in varying periods of time in different water bodies. For example, in the Western Pacific Ocean, hurricanes begin in the January 1st and end on December 31st. Before precipitation occurs either in the Coastal or Inland regions, the high level cirrus clouds of a height of 6,000 meters begin to form itself. After 12hours of appearance of the storm, at approximately 35miles per hour, strong winds begin to blow from the sea. This change from the thin cirrus clouds to thick, heavy clouds which are signs of rainfall. Rainfall occurs which forces winds to move at about 74 miles per hour, which is strong enough to lift a small to large material from the ground.
The rise in water levels in the sea is a significant factor in warning people around the area of an unusual occurrence that is about to take place. The sea rises to a height of 6 feet, thus make the waves to hit the shores repeatedly.
Increase in speed of wind is caused by the movement of clouds closer towards the land which rises from 11 miles per hour to 04 miles per hour barely an hour to the hurricane hitting the land. This speed is capable of a massive destruction from falling trees along the shore to lifting materials.
Heavy rainfall starts 18 hours before the hurricane lands. This rainfall causes a driving factor for the appearance of the hurricane which results in a continuous and increasing downpour of heavy rains inviting a hurricane.
Citation from; Baum, A., Fleming, R., & Davidson, L. M. (1983). Natural disaster and technological catastrophe. Environment and Behavior, 15(3), 333-354.
Causes of hurricanes
Hurricanes occur as a result of warm water in the sea and the rotation of the Earth towards the east direction. Jeff Masters, a Meteorologist says that, hurricanes are heat engines, consuming it from the moist water of the sea and changes it to the energy in the strong winds. The hurricanes use the energy from the ocean and develop it into mechanical energy. The National Hurricane Center states that, the pressure in the center of the eye of the hurricane is low, but has a high temperature which can enlarge it to a distance of 120 miles in width.
The latent heat of Condensation brings enables the water vapor to rise upward the atmosphere to form clouds and rainfall. The heat of condensation will be moved away from therefore producing more heat from the water body which lowers the pressure and in turn makes the wind to rotate towards the center of the hurricane. As the winds move in a clockwise direction it fosters evaporation to take place which causes vapor to rise towards the atmosphere to condense it leading to more rainfall. Rain bands are the location where the energies of the rainfall are produced from. An eyewall, where strong winds are developed moves around the warm air of the hurricane which occurs from the air moving inwards from the pressure of the heavy storm Causes of a hurricane are measured categorically which is based on the speed of the hurricane or wind that propels it.
Category 1 has less damage to the property. The speed of the inside moves at about 74 to 96 miles per hour, causing damage to tree branches and weak roofs of houses
Category 2 has an impact to the buildings with poor maintenance and structures that can easily be damaged in case of a natural disaster. Wind speeds move at 96 to 110 miles per hour
Category 3 is disastrous to all weak shelters. It also causes large trees to fall as it moves at a speed of 110 to130 miles per hour.
Category 4 contains a wind speed of 131 to 156 miles per hour with hazardous damage to properties
Category 5 is referred by meteorologists as deadly since it leads to death and massive destruction moving at a speed of above 155 miles per hour
Hurricanes can only cease as it moves towards the inland areas, where no heat can be generated to enable the process of evaporation to the atmosphere.
Citations from; Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-Nunez, A. M., & Gray, W. M. (2001). The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: Causes and implications. Science, 293(5529), 474-479.
Effects on human life
An occurrence of a hurricane impacts heavily on the people affected. As the winds move towards the land where people inhabit, it causes damage by instantly falling trees within around the shore of the coastal region.
Major destructions they result if the impact of the hurricane id deadly to damage either; trees, homes, and roofs of small houses. Damage of property and shelter will therefore take a lot of ties to build up again after it has undergone the losses. The distractions are majorly done by hurricanes of a higher level of category 3, 4 or 5. Its impact to the owners is huge and its costly to recover.
Loss of lives are usually being the rise after an occurrence of a hurricane. This shows how impactful a hurricane can be. It destroys a lot of lives through damaging buildings that had people in or around it. Hurricanes also cause physical injuries to most of the people around the area.
Cause shock to the people. With the intensity of the hurricane even from a distance, it will develop fear among the people, resulting in trauma among themselves. Trauma cannot be erased from a persons mind because it is a rare natural disaster.
Outbreak of diseases is usually experienced from a place affected by hurricanes. This is due to the rise of water levels of the ocean towards the buildings causing flooding which breeds diseases. Diseases such as malaria and pneumonia is a reflection of what can be caused after the development of the natural disaster. Heavy rainfall can occur after the hurricanes resulting in flooding and stagnant water, which will cause water to be undrinkable and not favorable to use
There will be a loss of livelihood which consists of losing their homes and jobs which has been swept away by the hurricane and heavy rainfall. Schools will be affected by this menace, thus affecting education.
Generally, hurricanes are dangerous to our lives. They perform all manners of destruction of lives, properties and daily activities. Due to flooding, the use of electricity can be compromised for s period of time before repairs are conducted.
Citation from; Mallin, M. A., & Corbett, C. A. (2006). How hurricane attributes determine the extent of environmental effects: multiple hurricanes and different coastal systems. Estuaries and Coasts, 29(6), 1046-1061.
This is necessary steps we can use to be cautious of an emergence of a hurricane. They reflect in early preparedness before the storm and after the storm has occurred.
Before the storm occurs
This is to get the people who may be affected to be ready for the disaster at all levels. This includes; being keen in following weather changes and reports from the radio or television station, securing another house in a distant place, and stocking food and water.
During the storm
Since the hurricane can be catastrophic, it is safe to stay enclosed in a secure room which cannot be affected by the hurricanes violence. It is also safe ton keep away from doors and windows. Having supplies just in case it sweeps away appliances. We should also keep away from using phones in such scenarios
After the storm
The first precaution is to ensure that the storm has passed away. It is also advisable to conduct the electricity company in case of a fallen or lose power pole.
Effects on the economy
It impacts negatively on the economy as important resources will have been swept away. A lot of time will be lost in repairing damages. If the hurricane led to a destruction in a government corporation, there will be a loss in repairing of its assets. It promotes unemployment of people since lack of opportunities will be developed
Citation from; Belasen, A. R., & Polachek, S. W. (2008). How hurricanes affect wages and employment in local labor markets. The American Economic Review, 98(2), 49-53.
Fastest hurricanes in the world and how they are named
The strongest forms of hurricanes in the world had the fastest speeds and placed under category 5.
Hurricane Patricia moved at a speed of 201mph which made it the fastest hurricane in the world appearing in the 1970. This occurred in the Eastern Pacific off the coast of Mexico.
Typhoon Haiyan from the western pacific has a speed of 195mph and deadly as it was, led to the death and injury of more than 7300people of the Philippines
Hurricane Allen occurred in the Atlantic Ocean during October 12 1979 and propelling with a speed of 189mph which had the worlds lowest barometric pressure of 25.69 inches
In my point of view, people living along the coastal regions should enforce be aware of hurricane and its season that may likely appear due to increased rainfall and thunderstorm. They can achieve this by using precautions necessary for their safety and control. The government has a task in disaster management preventions by providing information on an occurrence of this natural disaster to enable early preparedness.
Gray, W. M. (1979). Hurricanes: Their formation, structure and likely role in the tropical circulation. Meteorology over the tropical oceans, 77, 155-218.
Holland, G. J. (1980). An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Monthly weather review, 108(8), 1212-1218.
Emanuel, K. A. (1988). The maximum intensity of hurricanes. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 45(7), 1143-1155.
Pielke Jr, R. A., Landsea, C., Mayfield, M., Laver, J., & Pa...
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