Q1. What Information is Gathered in an Aquifer Analysis?
The information gathered in an aquifer analysis is the hydraulic properties of the aquifer systems such as the transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and variation of the head or drawdown (Alter, 2012). The transmissivity of the aquifer system involves information related to the grain size of the materials, and the various geological formations penetrated including the pump length, screen as well as depth of its installation. In this case, the stratigraphic position information of the different layers is obtained. Lithologic description of the collected samples is also detailed together with the sorting degree, grain size and the content of the clay in the soil.
Information regarding hydraulic conductivity is gathered during an aquifer analysis to record the capability of the material in transporting water or fluid in the pore spaces when the hydraulic gradient is applied (Alter, 2012). In that case, information such as the average speed of the fluid through a measured area to the hydraulic gradient applied is recorded. During aquifer analysis, data such as material permeability, the degree of saturation as well as viscosity and density of the fluid is useful understanding the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system.
Variation of the head or drawdown is information about the drawdown control which should be maintained at a constant level. The control rate is measured; time recorded and changes in water levels gathered to estimate the storativity and transmissivity of the aquifer.
Q2. Discuss how Soil and Groundwater Contamination is Delineated at a Site.
Soil and groundwater contamination is delineated at a site by using geophysical methods including self-potential, direct current resistivity and electromagnetic measurements (Alter, 2012). The techniques are used to measure and detect the groundwater and soil contamination spread. The methods also help in locating the leachate plumes pathways occurring from the contaminated site. Using the electromagnetic approach, soil and groundwater contamination is delineated at the site by monitoring the environment and remediation process (Alter, 2012). The electromagnetic survey detects the spread level of the soil and groundwater contamination. Based on the electrical conductivity of the geophysical anomaly, the particular area of investigation is delineated into several zones such as the transitional, contaminated and original zones. Measurement of the quadrature phase and the in-phase of the electromagnetic field are performed (Shaohong, 2010). The quadrature phase element provides the ground conductivity while the in-phase component provides the ratio of the primary and secondary electromagnetic field. The apparent conductivity has high sensitivity to contaminated soil and groundwater and useful in searching for any pollutions buried in the soil and groundwater. The zone with the high conductivity as measured by the electromagnetic method is the contaminated zone of groundwater and soil. The behavior of the soil and groundwater as measured by the electromagnetic method reveals the contaminated area based on the physical differences identified in the subsurface body.
Q3.What is Peer Learning? Describe how Peer Learning Could be used in Classroom Training and Computer or Internet-based Training.
Peer learning has been described as the form of studying where students learn from one another without the presence of a teacher or any other implied authority. Students are said to learn more when they explain their answers to fellow learners. According to Boud (2001), learning with other student and from other learned is useful and essential in all aspects of a course. Peer learning is an educational strategy that engages students more actively in the learning process. These learners construct their meaning and understanding of what they want to learn or study. They search for information, collect facts, analyze, evaluate, integrate and apply the knowledge when completing an assignment.
Peer learning could be used in classroom training and computer or internet-based training through the formation of groups that educator will instruct the learners to perform particular assigned tasks. The students form collaborative groups to engage with the material actively and learn from each other (Michaelsen, Knight, & Fink, 2002). Through the engagement of students using the small groups either physical or virtual, the students will engage emotionally, socially and intellectually in conversation that is constructive. Through this process, the students will learn by talking and questioning the views of each other and finally reach a consensus (Boud, 2001).
Q4. What is Active Learning? How Could Active Learning Principles be Applied in a Safety Training Course on Machine Guarding?
Active learning is a method of instruction where the educator asks the students to engage in the process of learning. Students are said to be active recipients of knowledge from the expert. There are many forms of executing active learning including problem-solving, writing, reflecting and talking which can take place in any discipline. The teaching strategies allow students to participate in class lessons with the educator actively. Students can work together in class, as an individual or through reflections as a group. Five key principles of active learning can be applied in a safety training course on machine guarding.
In the safety training course on machine guarding, students should be involved actively in practicing the essentials of machine guarding. The involvement helps the student to construct meaning from the provide machine guarding instructions. Haight (2012) states that effective safety and health training can be achieved making the training more interactive by employing collaborative as well as active learning techniques. The educator should present facts and allow student to do tasks while noting the differences between facts and learning to do machine guarding (Haight, 2012). On the safety training course on machine guarding, it is critical to choose the context of training and engage students readily in the safety course. Keep students in small groups or teams to learn more from each other, clear explanations and achieve meaningful learning.
Alter, B. (2012). Environmental consulting fundamentals: Investigation and remediation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Boud, D. (2001). Introduction: Making the Move to Peer Learning. In Boud, D., Cohen, Ruth & Sampson, Jane (Ed.). Peer Learning in higher education: Learning from & with each other. London: Kogan Page Ltd.
Haight, J. (Ed.). (2012). Hazard prevention through effective safety and health training. Des Plaines, IL: American Society of Safety Engineers.
Michaelsen, L., Knight, A., Fink, D. (2002). Team-based learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Shaohong, Z. (2010). Delineation of groundwater and soil contamination using EM survey at an industrial abandoned site. IEEE. Liaoning Technical University.
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