Homo Sapiens was the first emergence of human development and was named the wise being. Compared to Luci and Ardi, Homo Sapiens had larger brain sizes for increased storage of information. Larger brain size also indicated advanced brains that helped in problem-solving in the fast advancing world of innovation. Also, the skull of homo sapiens, compared to that of Luci and Ardipithecus, has a short base with large braincases.
The Main Functions of the State
Large numbers of people who shared a common element, also known as civilization, settled in states. These states' functions include an urban focus where the cities became the places not only for cultural but also political, economic, and religious developments. States also acted as military structures where organized bureaucracies that met the people's demands as armies were responsible for helping gain land and powers. Hammurabi was an empire leader, a man of war, but also observed peace by being keen on affairs of the state. Like other leaders who practiced theocracy, Hammurabi saw himself as a shepherd of the people and developed a law code with 282 laws to help govern the people. Hammurabi's codes solved conflicts through strict justice with the principle of an "eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth."
According to Hammurabi's law, penalties for offenses varied with social class. A crime committed against a member of the upper level was severely punished than one committed against a member of the law class. Examples of such a law include law 196 that states that “if a free man has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye"(Duiker & Spielvogel, 2013, p. 13).
Yes, there are different values for women and men, and the laws varied. In married relationships, women held fewer privileges than men. A woman’s duties were based at home, and failure to execute them provided grounds for divorce. Husbands were allowed to engage in sexual activities outside marriage while a woman found doing the same was thrown into the river. Example of such law is "gadabout... neglecting her house [and] humiliating her husband, shall be prosecuted” (Code of Hammurabi, No. 143)" (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2013, p. 13)
Kings annd Codes
King Cyrus would agree more with the Hammurabi law codes. Hammurabi codes were formed to set punishments that meet justice. Cyrus was a great and powerful leader who had the pressure to solve many conflicts due to the rapidly increasing urbanization as a result of many cities being captured under his rule.
When Cyrus conquered the city of Babylon, he freed slaves and became the pioneer of human rights. Because he grew up as a poor boy who rose to power, it is possible that he would make changes to the laws concerning the poor. He would give people of low and high social class equality to suit his culture of conquering cities and making peace with them.
The cities also formed a robust religious structure, and this is how theocracy handled the requirements of civilization by serving as stewards to the gods' properties. Sumerians believed that the cities were owned by gods, and thus the cities were ruled by priestly officials. Since the civic members are members of the clergy. Monarchies also headed empires, and rulership was transferred to the next generation.
Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J. J. (2013). The Essential World History, Volume I: To 1800 (Vol. 1). Cengage Learning.
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