This paper will tend to look at the various steps, either positive or negative, that the country has undergone since the time of memorial to the current Sudan. Additionally, the paper shall as well talk about all the reactions that were observed by the introduction of Islamic law. The article will further illustrate the various sanctions that were imposed on the country by the US and the ICCJ as well. Furtherly, it shall touch on the killings that were experienced before and after independence, their causes, and results.
The history of Sudan is traced back up to the pharaonic period whereby the kingdom of Karma is being given weight. This was by 2500-1500 BC.However, immediately after that, there was the emergence of the rise of the kingdom of Kush. Notably, this was a kingdom that controlled Egypt for almost a century. Furthermore, immediately after the fall of Kush, some two countries emerged again, and these were Nbotia and Mukai which later last up 1500 BC. However, by 14th and 15th century, Sudan was entirely occupied by the Sultanate, while on the other hand, Darfur was under control of the West and Ottoman control the North. Definitely, this would mean that, Islamization and Arabization was under control of the whole land. Moving forward in the year 1820-1874 the vast Sudan area was being conjured by Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the hash rule was faced with a revolt from by Self- proclaimed, Mahdi Muhammad, as a result of such resistance, there was the formation of Ombudsman. Regretfully, the state was later destroyed by the British who decided to govern tether Egypt and Sudan. Notable, the kingdom of Kush had been mentioned in the Bible, to have saved the Israelites from the Assyrians. Apparently, they did not manage the war because, they were affected by diseases after the defeat of Nubians while struggling to get a place near East by Assyria. There was total invasion again by Esarhaddon on Egypt. As a result, all the Nubians were driven out of Egypt, and later Egypt became an Assyrian colony. Along similar lines, during Classical Antiquity, the capital of Nubian was based in Meroe, according to Greek, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia. Merely, this was just a term used by Assyrians while encountering the Nubians. More significantly the Kush were the first people in the world use the iron smelting technology until the mid-AD.
Islamic kingdom of Seminar and Darfur
This kingdom was founded by the Funj, and later Abdallah Jamma was incorporated, actually when Jewish traveler David Reuben visited Sudan, there was already an extension of Funj state to the north
Sudan as a country is one of the most diverse states in Africa. More elaborately, there is a various process that the country has undergone from the time of memorial. Tracing back by the year 1881, already the country was in existence. During this error, the revolt had erupted against the Ottoman -Egyptian administration. However, the uprising came as a result of the idea of the golden age being incorporated. Its primary objective was to seek for the restoration of Islamism as a glory on earth. The Egyptian ruler Muhammad imposed invasion in Sudan in the year 1820, whereby many Sudanese men were converted to the Egyptian military. Moving ahead, in the year 1899-1955 Sudan managed to pass into joint British Egyptian rule. By 1956 Sudan achieved its independence, having agreed on the form and the content of the permanent constitution. Along similar lines, there was an adoption of a document called transitional constitution by the Constituent Assembly. Notably, this transition was meant to replace, the governor general as the head of state.
Furthermore, in the year 1958, there was a military coup led by General Ibrahim against the civilian government who was elected early that year. This called for Sudanese nationalist leaders from both political parties to seek for a solution on how they would build a new nation, upgrading the economy, and lastly, a new permanent constitution was to be established. Other than that, late in the year 1962, there was an eruption of civil war in the South. However, this war was spearheaded by Anya Nya movement. It is worth mentioning that, this was a guerilla organization movement, they were utterly devoted and staged a violent resistance to doing away with the government of general Abdul, unfortunately, they were overthrown since some withdrew from the war. Furtherly, later in "October revolution" Abdul was finally overthrown whereby an Islamist led government was put in place.
Additionally, in the year 1996 colonel Numeri took over Sudan until the very time when he was outed by a bloodless coup in the year 1985. Regretfully, in his leadership he extended full dictatorship, serving some coups with constant political forces. After a short while, the party leaders of Sudanese Community Party were executed having led the coup against Mr. Numeri. Regarding the then gazette notice at the dawn of that day eighty -one people were executed behind this attempt, while in Khartoum more than 800 people were killed surprisingly, the executions were announced merely over the radio without an explanation of the root cause of the arrest. Finally, according to court verdicts, the accused had undergone some military attempts in a foreign land. After thorough investigations, Libya was accused of having tried to lead the coup, but the Libyan officials dismissed these charges.
In the year 1972 during the Addis Ababa Peace Agreement, the parties involved were the government and the Anya Nya, the primary outcome of the meeting was to ensure that the South becomes a free region governed by itself. Secondly, the independent commands were finally united under General Joseph Lagu. Similarly, there was also negotiations with the Sudanese government whereby proposal by regional autonomy and the need to end the hostilities were made, regaining the development of the economy as well. In the year 1978 oil was discovered in Bentu an activity that was carried out by Chevron. Similarly, in the year 1983, another civil war broke out under Sudan's People Liberation Army, its primary objective was to reestablish an autonomous Southern Sudan, and they felt that the Sudanese citizens were oppressed. Therefore, to be strategic enough, there was a rebel against the central government.
Imposition of Islamic law
The introduction of sharia law was finally put into effect in the year 1983 by president Numeri. This law consisted of a sub-division that was separate within the apparatus of national judicial. It was meant to administer Sudanese law within the civil law and Sharia sections. Along similar lines, by the year 1985 Mr. Numeri was finally disposed by transition council for unrest, and as a result, there was a formation of a grand government after elections, whereby, Mr. Sadiq al- Mahdi was made the first prime minister. Come the year 1986 military coup was taken over by a movement called the National Salvation Revolution, the campaign aimed to introduce new constitutional and political changes.
As a result of all these changes, a new president called Omar Bashir was put in place in the year 1993. He had an achievement having led the Sudanese people in a bloodless coup in the year 1989.
While in Addis Ababa Ethiopia, president Mubarak of Egypt accuses Sudan of having attempted to assassinate him, it is told that shooters managed to open fire on his motorcade, two of his bodyguards killed. Because, America remains a superpower, by the year 1998, they led to attack the pharmaceutical firm in Khartoum due to the alleged reason that, chemical weapons were being made there, which was opposed to the UN rules. Furthermore, in the very year, a new constitution was passed by 96% votes through a well-conducted referendum. Apparently, in the following year, there was the dissolution of national assembly by president Bashir followed by the declaration of a state of emergency which was done as a result of power struggling by the parliamentarians. Other than that, on the very year, Sudan started to export oil as an export opportunity.
The Darfur Crisis
Come in the year 2002, and the Machakos protocol talks created an agreement whereby Southern rebels were to refrain from civil war. More significantly, under the agreement South was given an opportunity of six to make a determination. In the year 2004, the war erupted. Many people ran to the neighboring countries like Chad. Surprisingly, Darfur killings were finally described as genocide according to the then US Secretary general Colin Powel. In the subsequent year, there was a peace deal signed by the government and Southern rebels. This created an opportunity for the leader of Southern rebel John Garang to be sworn in as the vice president, later on, the very year he died on a plane crash and succeeded by Shalvakir, his death was accompanied by several killings of civilians out of which, the International Criminal Court issue warrant of arrest to Bashir.
The Darfur Deal
In the year 2010, The Justice and Equality Movement managed to sign a peace accord by the government; as a result, Bashir declared peace in Sudan, on the very year the international criminal court issued a second warrant of arrest on charges of genocides. This was tested when Abshir visited Kenya, but the Kenyan government never responded. Finally, in the year 2011, through a popular vote, Southern Sudan gained independence through a popular vote. In the same year, the Darfur rebel leader was killed by the government forces. In March 2013, Sudan and Southern Sudan agreed to come together and pump oil.
Ruling Party Slits
In 2013, the same year the members of the national ruling Congress party called for divided in order for them to secularist and in 2017 US announces a number of sanctions on Sudan, December every year, the government of Sudan imposed emergency on Kassala state situated along the Eritrea border and finally the increase in bread price, called for protest an against the government has removed the subsidiaries.
According to the African countries, many are still very far from exercising democracy. Therefore it would mean that a lot of effort is required to make sure that democracy becomes the order of the day. Sudan, for instance, is a country full of dictatorship from the time of independence. Our military forces as well have abused their roles by killing innocent civilians. Therefore this is an opportunity for Sudan and other African countries to embrace good governance.
Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd Ed) Cambridge University. Press "Sudan "Country studies .n.d. Retrieved 26 June 2010
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