The khilafat movement started on September 4th,1920, in a bid to aid India in obtaining their independence and freedom (Choudhury, 2019). It got triggered by national movements such as India's national congress (INC), the khilafat movement, the Jallianwala Bagh (Choudhury, 2019). All anti-colonial resistant movements in India happened after the Jallinwala massacre that occurred on April 13th, 1913 (Choudhury, 2019). The royalty act of 1919 march did not allow the defendants to enjoy their rights (Choudhury, 2019). The royalty act prohibited Indians from enjoying their rights. However, it triggered the rise of Rowlatt Satyagraha, Jallianwala Bagh, Ali brothers (Mohammad and Shaukat), and the Khilafat Movement that fought and advocated for India's independence.
The khilafat movement was considered a political awakening by the Indians and as a threat by the British. The massacre also brought the idea that in the independence conviction, nothing was acceptable (Choudhury, 2019). Garandithi drafted and implemented a strategic plan that ordered Indians to refrain from any activity that might benefit the British government or economy (Choudhury, 2019). It included resisting all British educational institutions and industries. Gandhi did not only promote the Indian's self-reliance but also encouraged them to purchase and consume products made in India (Choudhury, 2019). Besides, Grandithi's cooperation movement ensured that the Indians stopped buying imported products, such as clothes made from England.
Moreover, the anticolonial resistance campaign was responsible for the restoration of the Indian Muslim movement (khilafat) in turkey and the end of ostracizing the minority group (Dubey, 2020). Restoring the Indian Muslim movement (khilafat) was imperative since it portrayed that the minority also needed to get considered as an essential part of the Indian society; for instance, the poor (Dubey, 2020). Civil disobedience movement and the quiet Indian movements were the subsequent movements after the Chakra Chura incidents. It occurred in 1922 when many Indian protests contributed to the decision not to buy British goods (Dubey, 2020). Furthermore, these protests were peaceful and non-violent. Some of the resisted British products resisted by Indians included clothes and liquors made in England (Dubey, 2020).
There were several factors behind the formation of the non-cooperation movements in India (Dubey, 2020). First, they got formed to try and reduce the oppressive rules by the British government in their Indian colonization processes. The harsh policies included the Rowlett act known as the black cat and the Jallianwala massacre in Amritsar (Dubey, 2020). During the Indians colonization process, a large group of Indian Protestants went around Jallinwala Bagh and Golden temple, which lies close to Amritsar to protest against the arrest of their two freedom fighters Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr.Satyapal (Dubey, 2020).
Additionally, many people lost their lives, mainly resulting from police brutality during the massacre periods. These deaths got considered the most dreadful occurrence during the British colonial period in India (Dubey, 2020). Some of the inhuman actions by the British government resulted in Gandhi, who was initially a preacher change to help the Indian government fight the British government. The non-cooperative government got support from the Muslim Khilafat movement to restore their initially undermined status (Guha, 2018). On the other hand, Indians formed the non-cooperative movements as a response to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and other violence in Punjab and have their independence as first as they could. It resulted from the intense oppression they were receiving from the British government, such as forced labor (Guha, 2018). Indians also argued that Gandhi, their leader whom they considered a role model, turned away from supporting the British government and opposed their rule (Guha, 2018).
Notably, other reasons for the formation of the non-cooperative movements by the Indians were economically based. Indians argued that most of them were financially unstable. Indians argued that goods made from British factories such as clothes, shoes, and liquors would prevent the artisan industry from selling hence affecting the growth of the Indian economy (Guha, 2018). It resulted in their resistance to British factories, such as the cloth-making factory. A larger population of the British army in India consisted of people from India. It disgruntled Indians since it involved engaging their citizens in war (Guha, 2018). For instance, during the world war, most of the Indian soldiers died in the process of protecting the British (Guha, 2018). Furthermore, most of the Indian political leaders such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who were the congress extremists, got arrested after conducting several meetings in public (Guha, 2018). It promoted and encouraged India's fight for freedom and independence.
In conclusion, the anti-colonial sessions aimed at destroying or preventing the success of British government services and projects. Anti-colonial sessions aided in the fight against the British rule, it promoted and encouraged a nationwide protest against the Rowlatt act. British government's oppressive laws and other economic reasons also promoted the formation of anti-colonial resistance movements in India. British rules had adverse implications on Indians, such as forced labor, a larger population of the British army in India consisting of Indians and Indians believing that British products prevented the artisan industry from selling hence affecting the growth of the Indian economy.
Choudhury, Soumen Dhar. "An Impression of the Advent of Gandhi in the Indian National Movement." Available at SSRN 3460537, 2019. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3460537
Dubey, Arvind Kumar. "Unit-3 Indian National Movement." IGNOU, 2020 http://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/21037/1/Unit-3.pdf
Guha, Ramachandra. Gandhi: The Years that Changed the World, 1914-1948. Vintage, 2018. https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/196463/gandhi-the-years-that-changed-the-world-1914-1948-by-ramachandra-guha/
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