Parents, teachers, and school professionals create formal ways through the Behavior Intervention Plan to work in collaboration to ensure that students adopt best ways to behave. However, before addressing the cause, first, the behavior problem need to be ide identified. The plan may benefit students who exhibit behavioral problems including aggressiveness, consistent off-task, and disruptiveness. Most of these behavior-related problems are triggered by multiple things that may not be related to the learning of the children and tend to affect their attention (Fairbanks, Sugai, Guardino, & Lathrop, 2007). The triggers include social pressure, school frustration, or family issues. Thus, behavior intervention is meant to address behaviors that are impeding student's learning by identifying the problem behavior, understanding the source, and developing strategies to address the problem.
Pathway's Staff Feedback
For the data based on the feedback from the Pathway's staff, the purpose of the data was to determine how effective the Behavior Intervention Plan training was to staff. The questions were based on whether the intervention plans were successful when applied to students as well as what the training help the staff could handle behavior problems. Thus, this data was meant to understand the effectiveness of the behavior intervention regarding these two factors; its successful application and the impact on the staff as far as addressing student behavior problems is concerned. On understanding the success of the program, three different feedbacks were indicated. Based on this data, some staff indicated that the intervention plans were very successful and that students were able to change the behaviors perceived inappropriate while others reported the failure. This tells that the program was effective in helping some staff and in particular circumstances but not all. Therefore, this would help retain the staff to use the intervention in the same area or slightly similar area. The intervention plan program also impacted staff differently such that some benefitted from the program while others could not learn anything. This could help improve on the way to train different staff to enhance their learning achievement.
The program is effective once it can achieve the intended purpose, and in this case to help students change inappropriate behaviors (Berkeley, Bender, Gregg Peaster, & Saunders, 2009). Data indicated that students changed their inappropriate behaviors while in some cases, no behaviors were changed. This shows that the intervention plan used was effective regarding identifying the behaviors of the students, understanding the cause, and the strategies adopted were effective to help students change. Thus, through the training program, students were able to change their poor behaviors into better ones. At the same time, the intervention plan was proved inappropriate in some cases as students could not change. It means the intervention could not identify the problem or the cause of the problem well and that the strategies applied were not appropriate for the identified problems. An effective program should go all the way impacting the knowledge of the people involved in applying the intervention plan. If the staff can understand the intervention plans well, then, we can say the program was effective regarding its impact to give knowledge to the staff. However, only one staff indicated to have gained from learning the intervention plans, while others experienced challenges and could not comprehend the program.
Frequency of Challenging Behaviors
Typically, students portray variety of challenging behaviors which may require that an intervention plan is implemented to help curb with these behaviors. In the absence of any intervention, these behaviors go out of proportion and may become a predicament on the performance of the students (Elliott, & Treuting, 1991). From the data indicated in the frequency of the challenging behaviors, before the intervention, it is evident that the level of the challenging behaviors was significantly high. This level exhibited a positive trend where they kept on rising during the consecutive months with the month of Novel recording the highest level of challenging behavior incidents. However, we see different level, and trend in the occurrence of the challenging behavior incidents after the treatment program is implemented. We see a continuous low level of these incidences as they exhibit a decreasing trend from December. There is a sharp drop between November and December when the program is first implemented. Though, we have seen an abnormal trend between December and January when the level exhibits an increasing trend but lowers again in the subsequent months until this level reaches its very lowest point of 30 incidents in June.
The implementation of the intervention plan had a lot of effect on the frequency of the occurrence of the challenging behaviors within Pathways. Upon the implementation, the rate with which the incidents occurred lowered after that and the subsequent months with the low number of incidents happening between February and June. The intervention plan was able to identify the behavior problems, their causes, and developed multiple strategies of how to address these challenging behaviors. Therefore, based on the level of the challenging behaviors incidents that was experienced before and a drop experienced after the intervention, it is evident that the program was effective (Elliott, & Treuting, 1991). The program was suitable in the circumstances within which the incidents occurred and were able to help put the behaviors in the right context for action. The program as well worked effectively for students and the staff who implemented the program.
Frequency of the Physical Aggression
The provided data indicate the frequency at which the physical aggression occurred after the 10 minutes observation by two observers at different an interval of one. Observer 1 recorded the following numbers; 1,2,1,4,3,1,2,2,2,and 1 while observer 2 recorded; 1,2,2,4,3,1,1,1,2, and 2.. Therefore, to find the total frequency of physical aggression for each observer is:
For observer 1= 1+2+1+4+3+1+2+2+2+1=19
For observer 2= 1+2+2+4+3+1+1+1+2+2=19
Therefore, both observer 1 and observer 2 made a total of 19 frequency physical aggression each.
Figure 3: Observer Data on Frequency of Physical Aggression During 10 Min Observation
Interval Observer 1 Observer 2 Inter-observer agreement
1 1 1 Agreement
2 2 2 Agreement
3 1 2 Disagreement
4 4 4 Agreement
5 3 3 Agreement
6 1 1 Agreement
7 2 1 Disagreement
8 2 1 Disagreement
9 2 2 Agreement
10 1 2 Disagreement
Using the total count method of IOA, the percentage of inter-observer agreement is:
Total intervals were 10, but only 7 intervals indicate that the observers were in agreement. Therefore, the percentage of inter-observer agreement is agreement intervals divide by total intervals multiply by 100 percent.
Hence, 7/10x 100= 70%. The percentage of inter-observer agreement was 70 percent.
However, this IOA percentage is not within the acceptable range since it is 30 percent far from the expected 100 percent agreement between the two observers. It is expected that when the two observers are making observations that they agree on the frequency of aggression occurrence since the time of observation is the same. Even in the case of disagreement, there should only be one case (Quinn, Gable, Rutherford, Nelson, & Howell, 1998). However, the three cases of disagreement in this data resulting in the lowest 70 percent mean some changes need to be made to increase the IOA percentage. These changes include improving the methods of learning when training the staff so that they identify every detail of behavior when making the observation. Also, there is a need to change the approach used to prepare students when making an observation so that they portray their typical behaviors rather than hiding their aggression behaviors. By observing the IOA percentage obtained, it is clear that the program was not much effective regarding observing since it resulted in several disagreements between the two observers. An effective program should have all observations in agreement.
Staff Treatment Integrity Checklist
The following are the percent for correct results of the treatment integrity checklist:
Before intervention: Factors with "yes"= 4, Total factors= 10
Therefore the percentage of correct results before intervention= 4/10 by 100 gives 40 percent.
1 day after intervention: Yes= 9, therefore= 9/10 by 100 gives 90 percent
3 months follow-up: Yes=6, therefore= 6/10 by 100 gives 60 percent.
Regarding the effectiveness of the program based on the measures of the treatment integrity, we can say that the program was effective since, after one day of intervention, there was a high improvement in the various environmental factors. After one day, all the factors tested suitable to allow the process of behavior intervention apart from the natural tone of voice. However, the program was not effective enough to maintain these factors over a longer period of three months.
The treatment integrity has little importance when it comes to behavior management programs success. It is evident from the data that the program was significantly effective one day after implemented following the treatment integrity. Though, over a long period, it could no longer prove the program effective which means the program lacks aspects that continuously keep the expected behaviors among students.
Berkeley, S., Bender, W. N., Gregg Peaster, L., & Saunders, L. (2009). Implementation of response to intervention: A snapshot of progress. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(1), 85-95.
Elliott, S. N., & Treuting, M. V. B. (1991). The Behavior Intervention Rating Scale: Development and validation of a pretreatment acceptability and effectiveness measure. Journal of School Psychology, 29(1), 43-51.
Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention: Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 288-310.
Quinn, M. M., Gable, R. A., Rutherford Jr, R. B., Nelson, C. M., & Howell, K. W. (1998). Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans.
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