Essay Sample on Africans' Struggle for Independence & National Cohesion After Gaining Independence

Paper Type:  Article review
Pages:  3
Wordcount:  617 Words
Date:  2023-03-07


All developing countries face several problems as they struggle to gain stability and economic independence. The struggle for independence, which was aided by Africans who studied in Europe and other western countries, was successful after a long battle. But even after acquiring independence and Africans taking up their leadership, a lot of challenges came about in bringing up their systems of government with the spirit of bringing about national cohesion. The rise of nationalism saw an increase in the number of political parties having different agendas and interests but with one goal of acquiring independence. New independence states faced a lot of intimidating challenges, which led to the adoption of new systems leading to the diversity of African systems of government. Countries in the middle east were also having a rough time adjusting to acquire a balance between religion and politics.

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Different political interests were part of the most significant challenges faced by the national building in Africa and the middle east. Most leaders had a different view on the economic path they wanted their countries to take. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire believed in adopting western cultures and capitalism (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2012). However, counterparts like Nkwame Nkurumah of Ghana and Sekou of Guinea believed in African socialism. They believed in pan Africanism, a concept of a united Africa.

Population bomb posed a very significant challenge as rapid population growth created a barrier towards forming a modern economy with desertification along the Sahara and also the presence of uncultivable land, which led to starvation and hunger in West African countries, Somalia and Sudan. With an estimated population of over 200 million Africans in the next ten years but not including the risk posed by AIDS. Despite an increase in economic activity, a more significant portion of the population is still very poor.

In the Middle East, peace led to the emergence of different states. But the question between Palestine continued to be a great challenge and brought in a lot of tension. This led to the control of immigration among the Jews by the Arabs. Religious conflicts, mostly among Christians and Muslims, is one of the prolonged standing disputes for ages, and it is still in play even right now. Muslim leaders claim that every nation's military is meant to terrorize those who pose a threat to the government. And in the same manner, they form a terrorist group to intimidate those who pose a risk against their religion. And this led to more than 3000 deaths in September 2001. (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2012)

The crisis on the Persia gulf also brought in a lot of hatred in Iran. Despite most of the inhabitants hating the united states, they equally hated their close enemies. To the north was the Soviet Union, to the west was a highly militant Iraq. Led by a very ambitious Sadam Hussein who had just seized power on his own, followed a successful coup by the military, and had taken advantage of the instability between the military ruling party


In conclusion, apart from Africa, the middle east of the most unstable continent. This is brought about by massive interference from outsiders, and those who are attracted to the oil reserves present in the Persian Gulf. Despite external factors contributing to this instability, internal issues also play a significant role. The theme of ethnicity rather than nationalism has played a crucial role in slowing down the process of nation-building. African states should remain united and create policies to enhance free trade and peace to acquire wealth and infrastructure, which is key in national building.


Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J. J. (2012). The Essential World History, Volume II: Since 1500. Nelson Education.

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