In Bern, the Ghanaian embassy is located at Ghanaian Embassy Belpstrasse 11 3001 Berne Switzerland (Firak, 2009). The embassy can be contacted via their email, which is [email protected] or [email protected] and also through their telephone lines, which are 31 381 78 52 and also 31 /381 78 54. The Ghanaian embassy is open throughout the week in Bern from 0930 to 1230 and again from 1200 to 1700, always apart from Ghanaian and Swiss public holidays. One can always contact the embassy through their telephone lines or their emails to consult about the time or for any other inquiry (Firak, 2009). The Ghanaian Embassy in Bern is also accredited to Austria concurrently, making it the main representation of Ghana in both countries. There are several and very important services that are provided by the Ghanaian embassy in Bern, and they are; the processing of visas and passports, legalization of the document, and other consular services. I worked at the Ghanaian embassy in Bern, Switzerland as an administrative assistant in the consular section. The main work in this department is dealing with issues that concern immigration, the issuing of visas, and passport, and the biggest part is advertising Ghana to investors who are potential. The embassy in Bern should represent Ghana as a country as it is a subsidiary of the country, meaning that it is a minor Ghana in Switzerland or a representative of Ghana in Switzerland. Everything concerning the country or the people of it in Switzerland should be dealt with or reported at the embassy. The Ghanaian people in Swiss should run for help at the embassy in case of any emergencies or mistreatment, or issues with immigration, visas, and passports, as well as the Swiss people in the country who might wish to get a Ghanaian visa or passport or even travel to the country (Firak, 2009).
Market Segmentation and Target Customers
International market segmentation is the process in which groups that have the same behaviors of buying or the set of potential buying customers are identified. In the highly competitive global market, the marketers, distributors, and manufacturers have to trade services and goods in order to get information, money, testimonials, referrals, and time from consumers from other countries (Brennan, 2018). Market segmentation is where the buyers have differences in their demands, wants and needs hence the marketing having to distinguish among the buyers and then segmenting them into divisions that are smaller and also equally similar regarding either their locations, needs, buying attitudes, resources or their buying practices (Sarwar, 2017). The core reason for the activities of segmentation is to make sure that both the existing and potential customers can be effectively reached and that also the different buyer's unique needs can be matched up with the offered services. Hence the clear definition of the term market segmentation is a reachable group of customers or a category with a clear cut or a marketing mix that is very different (Franklin, 2019). As a marketer, one has to create unique segments that create a comparable reaction to the diverse mix of the market available and the tools of promotion that are available in the organization or firm which includes, prices, promotion, partners, physical evidence, processes, people and place (Schlegelmilch, 2016). The segment in which I worked at in the embassy of Ghana in Bern, which is the administrative assistant in the consular section I was able to witness how the international market I segmented and how to sell your country to potential investors and customers. As the embassy is a mini Ghana or it is the representation of Ghana in Switzerland there Is the need to understand and segment the market wisely in order to get potential investors and keep the existing ones by selling a good image to them and also marketing the potentiality of the country and what it Is capable of as well as the achievements and the opportunities it holds for them (Camilleri, 2018). As assistant consular assistance, one has to act according to the roles that are given by the embassy, but in the Ghanaian embassy, it deals with being the first to act as the contact for the visitors and the embassy who require the services that are under the consular department (Wadood, 2017).
The consumers have very many differences that vary in every situation, even with interest in a similar goods, services, or items, even when they are all in a mission of solving a similar problem. In most cases, the difference occurs in the amount each is willing to pay, which includes the ability to travel in order to buy it and also the willingness to buy and also the time being consumed (Mulvey, 2017). Another difference is the attitudes of buying and practices. The embassy makes all this easier for its customers by making the processes available and easy to go through with and also offering affordable prices of travel (Mulvey, 2017).
The target market is the group of individuals that are intended to be reached when the marketing is done by the firm. The Ghanaian embassy, for instance, market the country towards people who can invest in it and increase tourism visits (Hofstede, 2002). In order to come up with the best way to segment a market, there are questions that the firm should ask themselves and be able to brainstorm on the best answers. (1) The person with the desire and the need towards the service being offered. (2) Who will approve the purchases; the decision-maker. (3) Does the customers with the need or desire have enough money or have the means to pay for the service. (4) Do the interested groups have well-defined needs, habits, and attitudes that can be approachable and served as a segment or group? Having answered these questions, the market can be segmented in a way that everyone will be contented with deliverance and delivery (Hofstede, 2002). Their segmentation can be shared into two portions, which are macro and micro-segmentation. The macro segmentation refers to the process of screening that is basically relying on how attractive the market looks, and micro-segmentation is where the groups that are similar in terms of personal and social values are identified. There are four types of market segmentation, which are (1) geographic segmentation, where large sums of future consumers are subdivided into groups of geographical absorption. (2) Psychographic segmentation is where there is a consideration during the grouping of different groups that have different social, economic statuses, and lifestyles. (3) Demographic segmentation is considerate to groups of people in terms of their age, gender, occupation, education, religion, income, and family life cycle. (4) Behavioral characteristics that observe the behaviors of future customers and the ones that are already there in terms of purchasing (Hofstede, 2002).
Target Customer Needs
The target customer in the Ghanaian embassy is potential investors and tourists. The embassy has to market Ghana in Switzerland in a way that will invite people who would like to invest in the country, visit the country, or even trade with the country (Provost, 2018). Customer needs are the requirement that the customer is expecting or requiring from a service or a need. The four types of needs that the customer requires are fair prices, good products, and good services (Provost, 2018).
Differentiation from Key Competitors
What makes a company different from the others is how they continue proposition value communication in ways that are effective and meaningful. These are the ways that can help in differentiating the business from its competition (Mayrhofer, 2017). (a) Differentiating the product from others; it is the most important key which can be achieved through advertising. (b) Differentiating the services; it might be in service delivery and the service provision. (c) Differentiating the distribution, it can be done through channels of distribution. (d) Differentiating the image and the reputation. (e) Differentiating relationships which can be achieved through the company personnel. (f) Differentiating the prices from others, every customer has a certain price that they are willing to pay on a product or service (Mayrhofer, 2017).
Strategic Positioning, and USP. Strengths and Weaknesses of Positioning
USP means a unique selling point, it differentiates a product from the competitor, it can be of high quality, of relatively low cost or the first of its kind; it is what the firm has that others don't. Strategic positioning is the manner in which a business, in general, is able to differentiate itself in a way that it looks superior to the competitor and has value in the delivery towards certain customer segments (Kohne, 2019).
Competitive advantage; is the greatest advantage if the product positioning can build a competitive benefit. If the products are unique, there is no way a consumer will buy another. Another strength is perception; it can be the biggest and greatest factor in the purchasing decisions of consumers. A company can use certain strategies of marketing like advertising to make their product look better than others in the consumer mind (Ryan, 2019).
High completion is a weakness in product positioning as each and every company or firm wants to position their products to be the most favorable to consumers. The second is that it is very difficult to maintain a certain competitive position, which is called inevitable change (Ryan, 2019).
International Marketing Challenges
These are the biggest challenges that are encountered by the international market; terrorism and racism, administrative policies, tariff barriers, political instability, considerable diversities, norms and ethics, variations in the exchange rates, and place constraints (Katsikeas, 2019).
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