Essay Example on Bipolar II Disorder: A Historical Look at its Development

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Pages:  4
Wordcount:  974 Words
Date:  2023-06-06


Bipolar II Disorder is the spectrum of bipolar disorder that is characterized by the occurrence of manic episodes. The bipolar disorder develops from late adolescence to early adulthood, depending on the age and gender of the person. The history of bipolar 2 disorder is dated back in the ninetieth century when Jules Baillarger and Jean-Pierre Falret presented the description of the disorder in Paris to the Academie de Medicine (Dunner, 2017). Falret had discovered that the disorder was clustered among related family members; he concluded that the disorder had a genetic relationship because it affected people based on the families that they come from. The findings prompted further research on why the disorder was clustered in families.

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When the Disease Officially Became a Disorder

Bipolar II disorder was officially recognized as a disorder in 1980. There was no clear treatment plan for patients living with Bipolar 2 disorder until 1980 when mood-stabilizing drug plus psychotherapy began to be used in treating bipolar II disorder (Rengasamy & Birmaher, 2019). The psychotherapy enables the patients to live with the disorder. The DSM diagnosis helps healthcare professionals diagnose patients living with the disorder to start the treatment plan. The disorder is associated with manic depression that causes extreme mood changes.

Symptoms of Bipolar II Disorder

People with bipolar II disorder experience hypomania, followed by episodes of depression. Hypomania episodes are characterized by increased self-confidence, inability to sleep, an increase in energy, a feeling of agitation, talking fast, racing thoughts, and impaired decision making as well as spending or drinking excessively (Dunner, 2017). These symptoms are, however, classified as hypomanic if they last for at least four days. People with bipolar II disorder also experience depressive episodes characterized by loss of interest in activities, decreased energy, and feelings of helplessness, guilt as well as sadness and emptiness. Depressive episodes are also characterized by trouble concentrating as well as unexplained weight loss or weight gain.

What the Disease Looks Like in a Person

Bipolar II disorder makes the patients look as if they are living good lives because of the mania effect that makes them happy most of the time. The disorder makes someone look as if they like conflicts because the patients rarely maintain relationships. Failure to relate well with other people makes the person lose jobs because the patients are unable to meet the demands of the employer (Dunner, 2017). The lives of people with the disorder are full of crises, including accidents and soaring debts. The personality traits of the people living with the disorder affect the perceptions of how they will impact workplace performance. Their personality traits will make it difficult for other employees at their workplace to work as a team in realizing the organizational goal (Dunner, 2017). Workplace performance is likely to reduce because of the influence caused by employees living with bipolar II disorder. The profit earned by the organization is likely to reduce due to the reduction of the productivity of the employees.

Bipolar II Disorder Prevalence in the United States

Approximately 2.6 percent of adults in the United States of America experience bipolar disorder. This translated into approximately 5.7 million Americans. Bipolar disorder is prevalent in the elderly, with the median onset age being 25 years. Those who are obese are highly vulnerable to bipolar II disorder, with statistics indicating that 35 percent of the people diagnosed with the disorder are obese (Bipolar Lives, 2019). Also, people with bipolar II disorder are at risk of developing diabetes than the general population. They are also likely to get and die from other diseases such as stroke, diabetes, as well as heart disease.

Effective Treatment

Sometimes bipolar II disorder is underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, but upon correct diagnosis, it can be effectively treated using lithium. This drug has been used for more than 60 years to stabilize the mood of the patients (MachadoVieira, Manji, & Zarate Jr, 2009). Lithium has been proven highly effective in treating depressive episodes as well as acute mania. The drug also reduces the reoccurrence of episodes of moods as well as suicidal behaviors. This drug, however, needs to be used carefully as it can cause kidney damage. Before administration, therefore, a patient needs to be screened for kidney problems. Frequent screenings also need to be administered while taking the drug to assess whether the drug is causing any damage to the kidney. If it is damaging the kidney, then it should be stopped immediately.

Long Term Prognosis

The long term prognosis of bipolar disease is that patients that get treatment and live with the disease by managing the symptoms and living normal lives. The patients mainly get social consequences because of the consequences of social behaviors (Rengasamy & Birmaher, 2019). Patients that don't get medical treatment plans are the ones that get challenges living because of the social consequences. People living with the disorder continue to get treatment to treat the symptoms and help the person live a normal life.


In conclusion, bipolar II disorder is characterized by hypomania and episodes of depression. In the United States of America, the disorder is prevalent among adults, with the median onset age being 25 years. The disorder is effectively treated using lithium excepted for patients who have kidney problems. Also, the patients using the drug should be tested regularly, and if it is affecting the kidney, it should be withdrawn immediately.


Bipolar Lives. (2019). Bipolar disorder statistics. Retrieved 30 April 2020, from

Dunner, D. L. (2017). Bipolar II disorder. Bipolar disorders, 19(7), 520-521. Retrieved from

Dunner, D. L. (2017). Bipolar II disorder. Bipolar disorders, 19(7), 520-521.Machado

Vieira, R., Manji, H. K., & Zarate Jr, C. A. (2009). The role of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder: convergent evidence for neurotrophic effects as a unifying hypothesis. Bipolar disorders, 11, 92-109.

Rengasamy, M., & Birmaher, B. (2019). Bipolar II Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence. Bipolar II Disorder: Recognition, Understanding, and Treatment, 241.

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