Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that causes an infection in the lungs and other parts of the body such as bones heart or brain. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria that cause Tuberculosis (Lonnroth et al., 2010). The Centre for Disease Control brings together various stakeholders involved in the TB screening in British Columbia. The following constitutes of some of the stakeholders involved:
- Community Health Workers
- Medical Director Aboriginal Communities
- Sector Lead Microbiology Lab
- Clinical Research Coordinators
- X-Ray Clerk
- Directly Observed Therapy Workers
Effects of TB Screening on Sector Lead Microbiology Lab
The sector lead microbiology lab has the main role to carry out analytical tests on sputum samples in a microbiology lab detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patient specimens, as well as correctly determine the presence of antibiotic resistance. The sector lead microbiology lab also oversees other members of staff working with them in the Lab. Since TB is a contagious disease, they have to take extra caution in the lab as they perform the tests. Screening is usually done through the development of cultures from patient specimens. The tests are done in a special chamber in the lab while wearing protective equipment. This eliminates of them contracting the bacteria from the specimens they are working on
How Sector Lead Microbiology Lab affects TB Screening
The sector lead has to work meticulously and ensure that the specimen is adequate and appropriate for diagnosis. The common problem encountered in inadequate volumes of sputum or contaminated through handling.
How TB Screening Affects Physicians
The primary care practitioners tend to play a crucial role when it comes to the prevention and control of tuberculosis. Mainly, this role is achieved through prompt recognition, referral of suspect cases to the secondary care as well as supporting the patients through the prolonged treatment. The primary care provider, in this case, may include the Physicians, nurses, and clinicians who tend to be the first to meet the TB patients before diagnosis takes place (Gallant & McGuire, 2015). With TB screening among the indigenous communities in BC, Physicians are be impacted by the issue. Mainly, through TB screening they may have a unique opportunity of decreasing the burden of TB which would be enhanced by earlier detection as an individual with active TB who may be undetected have higher chances of infecting an average of 10 to 15 people per year (Zenner et al., 2012). With TB screening in the community, some of the practitioner roles would be impacted. For instance, the role of suspected would be impacted as TB tends to react quickly when the patients have symptoms that are suspicious. TB screening would ease this practitioner role as they would not be required to suspect. Also, Physicians would have easiness of collecting higher quality sputum for the microscopy which is a core tool for detecting TB and monitoring of the treatment process (Lonnroth et al., 2010). Through the issue of TB screening, patients with a productive cough that has taken more than 2 or weeks must have their sputum sample assess for the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) within the designated laboratories (Zenner et al., 2012).
The TB screening would make a rapid progress when it comes to management and control of TB. This would be enhanced through the process of integrating the issue with the primary care system (Lonnroth et al., 2010). Similarly, the primary care program, provided by Physicians, would be impacted by the issue as it would be considered as adequate after the inclusion and participation in the TB control. With the integration of primary care and TB control program, TB case detection as well as case holding will be improved and in turn, extended benefits for the entire population will be achieved. Physicians are crucial when it comes to detection of TB suspects and in referring them for treatment which prevents in the spreading of the disease (Raviglione et al., 2012). With TB screening, there would be necessary changes, where the role of primary caregivers would have to change and become more important. For an understanding of the potential and current roles played by the practitioners in TB control, it is significant to have an understanding of the structure and the role played by the national TB control program. These stakeholder roles of communication would be impacted by TB screening among the indigenous communities in BC (Gallant & McGuire, 2015). In reality, their communication with the patients would be enhanced hence being able to emphasize on the significance of regular screening and completing treatment to cure TB. In particular, they would have the capacity of communicating on the needs of screening household and closing contacts for smear-positive cases and ensure that symptomatic contacts are well assessed (Raviglione et al., 2012).
The relationship between Physicians and TB screening
Physicians have the potential of affecting the issue of TB screening among the indigenous communities in BC. They will ensure that they educate the entire community on the signs and the symptoms that are associated with TB and the needs for seeking proper medication if there are when symptoms present themselves (Lonnroth et al., 2010). Also, they will offer a directly observed therapy for completion at the continuation phase of treatment under the management of the TB screening services. In addition, they would potentially influence the issue through reporting on any complications and defaults in direct observation of treatment of the TB service instantaneously (Zenner et al., 2012). They may have the role of completing all significant forms and returning them for the TB services. Furthermore, practitioners have an influence on TB screening through monitoring patients' risk groups for TB in accordance with the national regulations.
Engagement with Physicians on TB Screening
First, I would engage the Physicians by educating them about the infection control procedures in the healthcare facilities which are significant for the protection of the healthcare providers as well as other patients at the care facilities and institutions. I would explain to them that there are three significant levels of infection control measures set within the healthcare institutions (Zenner et al., 2012). There is the administrative, environmental and the individual respiratory protection. I would encourage the practitioners to ensure that there is proper patient registration as well as case notification. Also, I would advise Physicians to prioritize the treatments for the sputum-smear positive issues which is considered as the main source of infection within the community (Raviglione et al., 2012). Also, the practitioner would be engaged through the allocation of cases to ensure there is the relevant standardized treatment of regimens. I would also assist them in evaluating the proportion of cases in accordance with the bacteriology, organ and the history of prior treatment for TB. Finally, I and the Physician would lay emphasis on evaluating the required treatment outcomes with the use of cohort analysis (Lonnroth et al., 2010).
Effective communication with Physicians
There are excellent ways of communicating this to the Physicians. Effective communication techniques will encourage a conversation and involvement from the practitioner (Lonnroth et al., 2010). Some of these techniques of effective communication entail asking questions, careful listening, understanding the patient's needs or worries, and showing caring attitude and helping in solving the disease-related issues (Lonnroth et al., 2010).Physicians need to be aware of the potential adverse influence of the anti-TB drugs. Also, there is the need for monitoring the patients for any dangerous reactions as well as teaching ways of recognizing the adverse impacts and reporting them fairly. Through communication, encouragement and reassurance would be provided to the patients and their family members (Zenner et al., 2012).
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