Emergent bilinguals entail the immigrant youths attaining the designation as English learners in the American education setting or schools. In the context of the analysis concerning educating developing bilingual children, various aspects and factors are requiring the consideration since they are individuals learning contrastive linguistics. One the most challenges and misunderstandings in the pre-K-12 education today revolves around the various ways to educate children that are not yet fluent and proficient in the English language. Since these students attain the terming as English Language Learners (ELLs), they may face limitations in other schools; however, in the effort to maintain that they acquire significant equity, the ELLs are in fact the "emergent bilinguals." In the description of the term, in terms the children as "bilingual" whereby, they can still use their native languages as well as in English. In the understating the significance and implications relating the of the education of the emergent bilinguals' children, it fundamental to first understand what the bilingual education entails especially in the description of the knowledge in the U.S schools (Garcia et al., 10).
According to the National Association of Bilingual Educations (NABE), it attempts to describe the education of the children as an approach within the classroom context that makes use of the native languages of English language learners (ELLs) through the delivery of instructions and definitions. Within its analysis, it helps in the understanding relating to educating emergent bilingual children by listing that the instructional aims and focus of the bilingual education entails various occurrences (Garcia et al., 10). These goals include; teaching the English language; enabling the English language speakers to learn and acquire knowledge of a second language; and fostering of the academic development and achievement. Also, preservation of the minority's group cultural and linguistic heritage; merging the immigrants into the new society among other occurrences if not a combination of either of them. Moreover, as a principal aim, the education of emergent bilingual children, it looks at ensuring the learning of the English language as a second language through the utilization of various instructions. For example, the ESL instruction.
In consideration of the historical setting of the education of the emergent bilingual children, there are various changes evident over the last decade and years. These changes are visible through the comparison with the taking account of the home or native languages of the children and the flexibility in ensuring that their educational approaches are changing whereby they can learn the English language without or with fewer barriers. With the development and changes, educating emergent bilingual children is now possible through the adherence to various policies and following the numerous interventions relating to a number of the events.
Additionally, the (ELLs) are gaining the recognition and support from other interventions whereby there are structures such as the English Language Arts(ELA) that are promoting education emergent bilingual children. Also, there is the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) program that is playing a significant role in the overall intervention and oversees in ensuring that these children attain the education that is helpful and significant to their daily activities alongside other academic purposes (Garcia et al., 10).
Policies for Educating Emergent Bilingual Children
In the description relating to the policies for education emergent bilingual children, they have earned the focus of numerous U.S educational policy decisions that are rendering the intervention in various aspects especially in the local levels, state levels and also the national levels. Because of the multiple and urge for developing the education policies to enhance the ELLs, there are various educational programs set up to maintain that the children not only learn the language but can understand and relate to their native language to other life happenings that are an essential aspect in the education of the emergent bilingual children.
Nonetheless, with consideration to educating emergent bilingual children, the programs entail a series of activities since they gain the division as programs. They include; Submersion Program Model (sink or swim), ESL Pull Out, Structured Immersion (Content-Bases ESL), Transitional Bilingual Education (Early Exit), Developmental Bilingual Education (Late Exit), and the Two-Way Bilingual Education (Two-way Immersion, Dual Immersion, Two-way Dual Language).
Submersion Program Model
In this fist approach relating to educating emergent bilingual children, it comprises of the division between the "sink or swim" model approach. Within its context, it entails a program, where the schools and the educators enhance the provision of ELL students with a similar and equal educational service provision to native English speakers. In its description, it neither delivers an alternative educational service nor does it render the use of the child's native language to educate them. Within the purpose of this model, it was prevalent before the 1970s and still acquires utilization in various states. In its description, language instruction used is 100% English as it shifts to English only and may gain usage through the K-12 schooling (Ovando et al., 2018).
ESL Pull Out Model (Submersion And ESL)
In the description of this model, it entails a variety of approaches. In the language used in its instruction, the program involves 90-100% delivery of instructions in English; but may include some of the home or native language support in various instances or not. In its components, it ensures the mainstream education whereby the students acquire the pulling out for the 30-45 minutes of the ESL daily. Within the delivery, if the elements, the teachers require certification in ESL while the duration of the program may comprise a period as needed. The language of this program entails the need for students to acquire the target language of the remedial English.
Structure Immersion (Content-Based ESL or Sheltered English)
In the structured immersion, the language used through the delivery of the instructions comprises of the 90-100% English; this means that the instructions may include the use of the native language in support through different occurrence or not. On the other hand, the components of the program comprise subject matter instruction at the students' level of English. The children attain grouping for guidance, and the teachers need to be certified in ESL together with the accomplishment of significant training in immersion. As for the duration of the program, it takes between one to three years depending on the requirement. The goal of the programs ensures that its linguistic assimilation revolves around the quick exit to mainstream education; acquiring the English language as soon as possible.
Transitional Bilingual Education Model (Early Exit)
In this educating bilingual model, it comprises the 10-50% use of the home language in delivering instructions, while the English language delivery of instructions includes the 50-90%. In the detail of the program, it presents the ESL instruction on a daily basis since it is just a two to three-year program. Later on, the emergent bilinguals are expected to transition into the general curriculum setting. As an aim of the model, it focuses on the helping the student acquire the second language (English), as quickly as possible for academic approaches.
Even though the model is better than the ESL pullout model, it does not in prove proper efficiency since the language outcome is that the native language is usually lost. Within its components, it required teachers certified in bilingual education demonstrating that the students may need more proficiency in the English language. In other terms relating to the various researcher, the model may obtain the intervention that an emergent bilingual may qualify a position in a general education classroom through the acquisition of 40% in the English-language assessment, especially in speech or reading.
Development Bilingual Education (Late Exit)
In the development Bilingual Education model, also known as the maintenance program model, the emergent bilingual children acquire instruction in both their native languages and in the second language for a series of years. For the most of the models, they occupy the time frame from kindergarten up to the fifth or the sixth grade. Moreover, the students are not rushed into the academic education or classrooms which allows them to learn the language through the acquisition of the English language. For this program, its primary goals look at ensuring that students learn the English language in proficient contexts which may entail the academic literature (Ovando et al., 2018). In most of the cases, it is evident that students enrolled in this program render the best results in the acquisition of the language since it entails both learning and practice. In comparison to another model, this is one of the best enrollment models for educating emergent bilingual children. It may gain the perception as one of the best; however, it is not the most effective compared to the Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Program.
Two-Way Bilingual Education (Dual Immersion, Two-way Dual Language)
In the detail of this model, it enhances the provision of a relevant approach to the ELLs. According to the instructions provided in this model, it uses both the target language the native language. For example, the Spanish-speaking students and English speakers acquire teaching in the same classroom all day long. In the delivery of the instructions, it uses the 90-10% format, whereby the 90% of the instructions given on a daily basis attains provision in the minority language or the language less supported by the external society. Within its components, the ELLs and native- English speakers taught the subjects in both languages with peer tutoring. It the duration of the education delivery, it may entail between five to six years (Ovando et al., 2018). In the goal of the model, its language aim involves that it enables each student to learn a second language. In other terms, the students or children acquire introduction into minority language from the kindergarten level, and students learn two semantics all through to the fifth or the sixth grade. Aldo, the language goal required the students obtain high levels of proficiency in both the acquired language and the native language.
In educating emergent bilingual children, it is important to note that there are different levels of the children in as much as there are various programs. In most cases, some applications may work for some children, while other models may work for other children; however, at the end of the day, the language goal entails the learners can acquire the second language in different proportions and can use it is academic approaches. As for this approach, the models vary with different states but render a similar approach whereby the U.S is ensuring the education to the emergent bilingual children is effective.
Garcia, Ofelia, and Jo Anne Kleifgen. Educating emergent bilinguals: Policies, programs, and practices for English language learners. Teachers College Press, 2010.
Ovando, Carlos J., and Mary Carol Combs. Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts. Rowman & Littlefield, 2018.
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