Theoretical contributions are set of diverse assumptions that include casual logics to explain the relationship between different constructs but not necessarily the logic. Under a typical circumstance, complete theoretical contributions need to contain at least four major essential elements that include, when, why, how and who exactly carried out the research. On the other side, methodological contributions aim at singling out the various methodologies used in carrying out the above research. In Methodological contributions, it deals with the entire process of data collections, that involves, direct observations, participation through ethnographic interviews, and even demonstrations and must always be inclusive. Finally, empirical contributions include testing the various theoretical linkages mainly between two or more constructs that never tested before. Besides, empirical contributions seek to analyze the degree to which various variables mediate the interrelationship between two or more construct. The paper seeks to discuss the theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions of the attached articles on Emotion sides prejudice, Dehumanization and Moral Disengagement.
In the first article by Haslam, 2006 on Dehumanization, the author portrays various elements of theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions in various ways throughout the article to present his arguments. For instance, when the author explains that, a research conducted on dehumanization on people living with a disability, the research gives a detailed comparison of these groups of people to parasites (Leyens, Rodriguez, Demuline, Perez&Gaunt, 2000, p5). More importantly, the concept of humanization also reveals how feeble-minded people are treated or regarded within the society. Their high rate of procreation and inability to associate with other individuals distinguish them from different kinds of individuals. In the theoretical contributions perspectives, the author uses a district theoretical approach to emphasize the basic central value of human position when it comes to dehumanization. In the same case, when comparing values of two different groups, individuals tend to believe that, when out-groups have different values to the in-group, then the odd ones with lack of shared humanity.
Similarly, human being theoretically believes on a common and a shared theme. In the context of humanization and infra-humanization, the society tends to discuss human attributes on aggression perspectives to emphasize on the removal of some of the normal and naturally occurring restrains. They despise the out-groups for being beyond the expected societal boundaries. In theoretical contributions, any attempts to study humanization model must be in line with a much clear sense of characters in place.
In the second article on the emotional side of prejudice, theoretical contributions further reveal in various aspect. For instance, in the process of adopting implicit tasks, the authors indicate that, under normal scenario, few individuals will admit having difficulties associating with the out-groupers. More interesting, various distinctive apparent characters distinguish both the out-groupers and the in groupers. Besides, we get to understand better the interrelationship between both secondary and primary emotions sides of human behaviors. Rating secondary emotions from primary emotions is an improbable event, which can only occur theoretically. Affirming that secondary emotions have high ratings than primary emotions has no useful, supportive evidence but can only take place in a theoretical manner.
In the other article by Albert Bandura on Moral disengagements, is embedded in the ability and the powers of a human being to behave morally upright. The society has its moral expectations and anything different immoral. From the theoretical perspectives, any moral disengagement from inhuman conducts is one of the most growing problems among various categories of a human at both collective and at an individual level. Theoretically, people would not engage in any moral disengagement before analyzing out the consequence and the repercussions of their conducts. Distortion of the moral value among human is something that is well clear in the minds of human. Doing a proper thing is something that is natural and guided by the societal principles. Morality is self-regulatory events that need for personal or self-regulatory assessment.
On the other hand, the articles present a good framework of methodological about dehumanization concept. In the articles, the authors bring a descriptive of a "lost-email" as one of the preferable tools in testing dehumanization hypothesis in a different group of individuals (Bandura, 1999, p11). Through direct observations, an individual can conclude some of the most challenges, and psychological torture most people the less fortunate people in the society undergo. The concept of linking a human to animals is a disgusting comparison without a clear sense of judgment. Proactive moral actions in most cases are regulated by the resolute kind of engagement mechanisms. In such scenarios, people tend to behave in such a way that the society expects but not be as they wand or against their wish. They tend to remains more sensitive to other individuals and remorseful.
Observations as a form of methodological contributions enable other people to develop many clear thoughts against other people based on their behaviors. Being human or inhuman is a self-reliance mechanism that you decide on your own based on what the society expects of you and what is morally upright (Haslam, 2006, p9). Denying other people access to certain facilities or using given kinds of equipment is ethically unacceptable. Just like any other group of people whether from the minority or majority needs equal treatments and care. Denying the less fortunate openness would represent relative superficial kinds of attributes. Human animalization is an outdated concept that divides human nature into two distinct groups, the senseless and the sensible groups. In as much as other groups are superior to other, that does not give a direct ticket to mistreatments of other groups especially to the less fortunate and those living with a disability.
In conclusion, the articles further present the concept of empirical contributions especially by comparing dissimilar events in relations to the daily happening in line with dehumanization and societal moral views. As the human being, we get to learn through direct observations as a methodological approach and theoretical perspectives of the societal expectations, especially on the moral norms. In moral of disengagement and attributes of blames, justified abuse in most cases may have consequences that are more devastating to those affected. Psychological distance is another form of dehumanization that tends to create a gap between two distinct groups making others feels less superior. We should, therefore, learn to accept and avoid Utilitarian analysis is in such a way that it exonerates analytical comparison of diverse kinds of expected and unexpected practices. Both the empirical, theoretical and methodological contributions in every research play fundamental roles in coming up with valid justifications of findings.
Bandura, A., (1999). Moral Disengagement in Perpetrations of Inhumanities
Haslam, N, (2006). Dehumanization: An Integrative Review
Leyens, J., Rodriguez. R, Demuline., J, Perez &Gaunt, (2000). The Emotional Sides of Prejudice: The Attributions of Secondary Emotions to In-groups and Outgroups.
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