1. Preventative measures suggested by the Department of Health to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome pdf.
Sudden infant death rate is high, and many children fail to live to their first birthday. The sudden infant death is caused by many factors such as premature birth, suffocation, and strangulation in the bed. In the United States, every year over 4000 children are reported dead, and the deaths are associated with the SID syndrome (Hunt and Hauck, 2006). It is as result of the high number of mortality rates that preventive measures are defined of which they include
Back to sleep
The back sleep method is advocated to caregivers, parents and health providers as a precaution to reduce the risks associated with the SIDS. Any time a child take a nap whether, during day or night, a child should sleep on his or her back. Stomach Sleeping is highly likely to cause the SIDS because the baby can suffocate due to rebreathing of expired breaths which result in the buildup of carbon dioxide and lowers the oxygen level. Also, the child may have the upper airway blocked in the stomach sleep position. The back to sleep position has other advantages attached. For example, children are less reactive to sleep, and the child has longer sleep hours. in other instances there reduced blood pressure and heart rate control.
Not too hot
During sleep, infants are to be kept warm, however, to much warmth result to restlessness. Due to overheating the child makes many movements that lead to suffocation and bedding tangling. Many children who die as a result of SIDS are said to have sleeping surfaces that are soft and have their heads covered. It is, therefore, advisable that caregivers and parents should lay infant to sleep on a hard surface with fewer clothes and medium temperature especially in the cold months of the year. The measure reduces the risks of SIDS.
Smoking during pregnancy is highly associated with the SIDS, the side effects that smoke cause to the unborn child has critical consequences for child survival. Placing an infant in the smoking environment also has its effects, and the effect is highly likely to result to the SIDS. Smoking hurts the development of a child nervous system which in return affect the child breathing system, heart, and arousal system. The effects in the body functioning and growth may result to SIDS, and therefore it is advisable to keep the child from the smoke-free environment during pregnancy and after birth.
The infant sleep in the same room as parents for the first six months
A child sharing the same room with the mother but not the same bed with the parent is associated with reduced risks of the SIDS. The parents should have a cot for their babies in the sleeping room for at least six months. The measure gives the parent constant and ample time to keep checking on the child sleeping position, heating and covering and the child instances of suffocation, overheating and struggling are reduced.
Q 2. Explain the need to start a good sleeping routine with a newborn
Sleep is fundamental for all human beings whether young and old. Sleep is associated with healthy living and sleep influence body functioning, healing, and growth. When infants are born, parents have an expectation of children sleeping habits. Babys sleep for long hours without a pattern but as they grow, a child need to be introduced to a sleeping pattern. A sleeping pattern allows the child to acquire the right amount of sleep and also it enable the parent nature a proper infant sleeping behavior. Children love a well-planned routine and life as it gives them comfort and diminishes restlessness. The sleeping patterns are important as they help a child in learning socialization behavior. When sleep patterns are introduced a child begin to learn when it is time to play and time to sleep in that order the child learns that there are rules in life to be followed (Mindell, Telofski, Wiegand and Kurtz, 2009).
A sleeping routine should be followed closely whether at home or away from home and this help the child adjust quickly to new environments. A sleeping pattern can be introduced right from the age of 3-8 weeks. However as the child grow the routine is changed to suit the child growth and development behaviors adopted. The sleeping routine is healthy not only for children but also to the parent. The sleeping routine creates ample time for the mother and the children to bond, and this is because during the routine, the parent and the child play and sit tightly. During the routine, the mother can wash the child, change diapers, sing the baby to sleep, read a story or rock the child to sleep. The routine sleeping help the parent have ample time to rest and relax. This measure help parents reduce the negative unsustainable behaviors.
During the introduction of a sleeping routine, a parent should be taught of the different sleep habit and hours a child need in the different ages. For example, a newborn child is expected to have 11 -18 hours of sleep, infants have 14 -15 hours, toddlers have 12 -14 hours, preschool have 11-13 and the school age going children have 10 -11 hours of sleep (Mindell, Telofski, Wiegand and Kurtz, 2009). To make the routine hold up consistency is highly advocated. For example, a child should be fed, washed and then taken to sleep of which during the sleeping time a story, song or chair rocking is done.
Q 3. Explain the relevance of infant brain development to sleep training theory
Sleep is necessary for a child as its nature the brain of an infant to maturation, and in the process, the child memory is developed. Based on research, children who have enough sleep have a high cognitive potential than those who have less sleep (Dawson, Ashma and Carver, 2000), The brain formation of a child begin before birth and roughly about three weeks after conception. As the brain of a child grows during pregnancy millions of neurons are generated, and they are connected to the brain cells. The neurons produced by a child during pregnancy are too many than necessary. Due to the high generation of neurons, the child after birth experience turns of changes. Therefore, it will be collected to say that during birth the neurons in the brains are already present with some synapses. As the child grow, the neuron mature and more of the synapses are made.
Synapses are defined as the connection between a neuron and its targets. The synapses process allows the neurons to communicate to each other due to the presence of the neurotransmitter. When one neuron is connected to another, the neuron contact creates Synaptics and when all the communication function together they help stimulate the last cell. In the process, the individual contact cooperates to form a synapse. When the neuron are exposed to turn of activities, the synapses shape and remain active. When the neuron become inactive, then the synapses are lost. Synapsis formation does not occur randomly, for example, the GABAergic synapses are formed in the proximal dendrites and body cell, while the glutamatergic synapse form in the dendritic spines. A child's brain develops in response to genes and environment. In a child, brain synapses are influenced by a child experience and play. The experiences create a foundation for neuron growth. Stress is a common feature during development and stress contribute to the building of adaptive coping. Stress result to increased hormone levels and increased heart rate that is short lived. The ability of the body to experience stress and cope result to healthy development. Excessive and prolonged stress result to negative brain development (Garner, et al., 2012).
According to Dawson, Ashma, and Carver, (2000), when babies are left to cry out, the baby develops distress a condition that causes damage to the synapses. The neuron construction in an infant at that moment is destroyed as the cortisol hormone get released. The process is slow, but in the long run, it damages the brain development in an infant. The crying out distress does not only affect the brain but also, it results to poor vagus nerve functioning that is connected to the irritable bowel syndrome. Crying out undermines a child self-regulation. Children do not self-calm in isolation and when attention is given to them they calm. When left out to cry they calm due to great distress and they stop feeling with time, and they stop trusting. This factors developed result to diminished self-confidence, and the child may spend a lifetime trying to fill the inner emptiness.
4. Critically compare common sleep theories
Different theories are used to explain the role of sleep as a period of physical restoration and a time for repair and growth of body worn out cells. When human beings are deprived off sleep, they are likely to do poorly in several areas such as cognition, psychomotor, performance and perception. Different theories explain why sleep is important for children. The main theories that explain sleep are the restorative theory, adaptive theory, energy conservation theory and memory theory (Mindell, Telofski, Wiegand and Kurtz, 2009).
The sleep restorative theory it defines that the body restores its self during sleep. In the process of sleep, neurotoxins are neutralized, and cell division takes effect, tissues are systematically synthesized, and the growth hormones are released. The process preferably occurs during the slow wave sleep, and as a result, the body is restored.
The adaptive theory defines that a human being and any mammal is likely to survive in case health sleeping is observed. To have healthy sleeping habits a sleep routine need to be introduced as a child develop the child need to be put in place to a healthy sleeping routine that will aid the child growth and development from one stage to another.
Energy conservation theory defines that sleeps help in energy conservation. For example, active children have a high metabolism, and as a result, they are likely to sleep more. In the process of sleep, energy is conserved for future activities.
Poor sleeping habits for infants are a cause for a child many growth difficulties. Therefore, it is recommendable for a sleeping pattern be introduced, and a child instances of distress during sleep solved. A child who does not sleep well especially the school age going child has constant fatigue and behavior disorders. Long term sleep deprivation result to change in a child mood affect the child physical and cognitive development. Based on the different sleep theories, a child should be seen and not heard, therefore, leaving a child to cry out is not recommendable as it causes distress which affects a child sleep and later causes growth and development problems.
5. Explain the difference between colic and reflux (write at least 200 - 300 words)
Colic is the uncontrollable crying in a baby that is prolonged despite the child well feeding and healthy. Children are likely to cry, but when the crying is too much for a day, then the child is said to have colic. Colic is characterized by crying many times in a day, and the crying gets worse at night. During cry, the child appears to be in pain and highly uncomfortable (Bergmann et al., 2014).
According to Bergmann, et al., (2014), Reflux are in other words referred to as the Gastro Esophageal Reflux (GER). The disease is caused by the backflow of content from the stomach to the esophagus. The condition is physiological and can happen to both children and adults. In children, the problem is attributed by the immaturity of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter, the muscle between the stomach and the esophagus. The GER is characterized by sudden crying just like in the colic disease. The child has irritable pain, insomnia, they vomit after eating, and they have constant hiccups and...
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