Question 1: Explain why lean production and Six Sigma are so important to successful supply chain management.
Lean and Six Sigma are viable options for organizations as they explore efficient strategies to boost their reputations and increase profits. The lean approach would help in the elimination of wastes in the process of manufacturing while Six Sigma reduces any variation and defects. When the two are combined in the supply chain management, there will be increased efficiency as waste elimination improves quality, as well as reduces the time spent on inappropriate process steps. Ideally, since product defects always increase the production costs, applying lean and Six Sigma approach decreases the costs by reducing the defects of a particular product. The lean production puts in place efficient tools for optimization of time, productivity, and human resources thereby improving the quality of service provided (Samarrokhi and Weinsier 117). Similarly, Six Sigma looks into the aspect of commitment by the management of an organization to identify the expectations of customers and work towards meeting them efficiently. As such, due to the improvements made to improvements made to the delivery methods and the product, the customers will find it easy to notice variations through lean production and Six Sigma techniques. These aspects also increase employee motivation as the employees are involved in the production and supply processes, and have opportunities, which would enhance development (Chiarini 227).
Question 2: Briefly explain the primary concerns and objectives of lean production
The primary concern of lean production is ensuring system-level optimization that involves the integration of different parts of an organization to work together rather than depending on individual performance of the various parts. The major objective of lean production is to reduce or eliminate wastes through continuous improvement and synchronization of the flow of materials in the organization. The lean production also aims to maximize performance by improving the value-added processes (Cherraffi et al. 834).
Question 3: How is lean production associated with JIT?
Most people confuse the concepts of lean production and Just In Time (JIT). JIT has its origin from the Toyota managers, and its focus is on continuous problem solving to help in the elimination of wastes during the process of production. However, in the present organizational platforms, lean is seen as a replacement for JIT. In essence, lean describes the philosophy involved in the incorporation of tools for optimization of time, productivity, and human resources economically. By optimizing productivity, the quality of service and finished products will improve substantially. Just In Time focuses on efficiency lean manufacturing entails the use of efficiency with the aim of adding value for the consumer products. JIT can serve as own step in lean production hence showing that the two concepts are associated in a way (Martinez-Jurado and Moyano-Fuentes 141).
Question 4: What are the seven wastes? Can you discuss them in terms of a business you are familiar with?
Overproduction is one of the wastes. It encompasses the production of more products than required or producing unnecessary commodities to ensure profitability. Overproduction arises when particular products are produced in excess quantities or for the customers even when they do not need them. For instance, Toyota Motor Corporation may manufacture automotive in excess due to long setups on the machines used in the production process. The second waste is waiting that entails the period of inactivity. In Toyota, some materials may experience excess wait time to process. Transportation is another waste that involves the movement of materials for service or product production. At circumstances, there would be excess material movement between the steps in processing and over long distances (Chiarini 229). Extra processing/ over-processing is a crucial waste to consider in lean production. In essence, this involves the processes that an organization has to redo due to the errors experienced at the first time, which would cost the company in entirety. Inventory is also a waste encompassing the excess of products stored than the required amount. The inventory may include raw materials and finished goods. Another waste is motion/excess movement in which there would be an unnecessary movement of employees from one station to another to undertake some tasks. The last waste is the defect that involves both product rework and scrap wastes, which result from the organizational processes; in this case, Toyota Motor Corporation. These products do not fulfill the expectations of customers (Cherrafi et al. 838).
Question 5: Apply the Five-Ss to improve how you could complete your daily homework or study assignments
The first phase of the 5-S that I will apply is Seiri (Sort), which I will ensure by organizing the study materials to help segregate the unwanted ones. I will set the study materials in order (Seiton) to prevent wasting time when doing the assignments. In this way, I will find it easy to identify the relevant materials for a given homework. I will use Seiso (sweeping) to help complete my assignments by keeping by place of work safe and cleaning the environment. I will also apply Seiketsu (Standardize) to my homework by developing an appropriate work structure for all my assignments. In this manner, I will ensure that my homework is professional through standardization of the assignments. The last phase is Shitsuke (sustain/self-discipline) in which I will ensure that I finish the assignments and homework on time (Jasti and Kodali 872).
Question 6: What are the two most widely used ISO standards, and why are they so popular?
ISO 9000 is the most widely used. It deals with the standards for quality management and the manner in which to incorporate a Quality Management System to prepare the organization for the efficient production of quality services and products. These ISO standards are popular since they are customer-focused and emphasizes on the continuous improvement of the processes of top management within an organization. They also deal with risk management in the enterprise. Another widely used family of the ISO standards is ISO 14001, which relates to the environment. It is popular since the standards establish appropriate requirements for Environmental Management Systems, as well as improving the processes of a company (Bajec & Krmac 277).
Question 7: Can a process exhibit sample measurements that are all inside the control limits and still be considered out of control? Explain.
If the sample measurements fall outside the control limits, it is assumed that the process is out of control hence requiring an investigation to help eliminate the causes. However, all the data points may fall within limits but, they would still be considered out of control. In essence, this is so because the plot may look non-random that gives points with a systematic behavior hence showing that something is still wrong with the measurements. In such cases, it would be appropriate to apply statistical methods for detecting the non-random patterns and interpreting the control charts (Ahmad and June 372).
Question 8: If one goal of a supplier partnership is to eliminate acceptance sampling, then who does it?
Acceptance sampling encompasses the technique used to assess a product and decide on whether to reject or accept it. Through acceptance sampling, one would look at the defects that can be allowed in a given sample. An Operating Characteristic Curve is used to show the probability of acceptance of lots that have a range of quality levels. Inspectors are the ones who eliminate acceptance sampling as they decide on whether to reject or accept particular materials by checking them and comparing the materials with the quality standards of the company and the documents that the supplier generates (Yen and Aslam 1108).
Ahmad, Liaquat, Muhammad Aslam, and Chi-Hyuck Jun. "Designing of X-bar control charts based on process capability index using repetitive sampling." Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 36.3 (2014): 367-374.
Bajec, Patricija, Danijela Tuljak-Suban, and Evelin Krmac. "Do ISO standards favour logistics provider efficiency, competitiveness and sustainability? A Slovenian perspective." The International Journal of Logistics Management 26.2 (2015): 275-295.
Cherrafi, Anass, et al. "The integration of lean manufacturing, Six Sigma and sustainability: A literature review and future research directions for developing a specific model." Journal of Cleaner Production 139 (2016): 828-846.
Chiarini, Andrea. "Sustainable manufacturing-greening processes using specific Lean Production tools: an empirical observation from European motorcycle component manufacturers." Journal of Cleaner Production 85 (2014): 226-233.
Jasti, Naga Vamsi Krishna, and Rambabu Kodali. "Lean production: literature review and trends." International Journal of Production Research 53.3 (2015): 867-885.
Martinez-Jurado, Pedro Jose, and Jose Moyano-Fuentes. "Lean management, supply chain management and sustainability: a literature review." Journal of Cleaner Production 85 (2014): 134-150.
Samarrokhi, Amir, Kouroush Jenab, and Philip D. Weinsier. "The effects of lean production and Six Sigma on sustainable competitive advantage with moderation of suitable resources." International Journal of Services and Operations Management21.1 (2015): 112-125.
Yen, Ching-Ho, Chia-Hao Chang, and Muhammad Aslam. "Repetitive variable acceptance sampling plan for one-sided specification." Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 85.6 (2015): 1102-1116.
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