Assignment Example on Alzheimer's Disease

Paper Type:  Questions & Answers
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1016 Words
Date:  2022-06-23

Identify and differentiate the symptoms from the signs in this patient

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The appearance of signs and symptoms in the patient can help distinguish them. A person will experience signs before symptoms of the disease start emerging. In this case, Mr. Franklin encountered several signs including unusual smells, tastes, and sensations which act as a warning for the symptoms to begin. Symptoms experienced by the patient are a feeling of dizziness which led to falling on the floor, severe epigastric pains, mild abdominal pains, and dark faces, malaise, and pyrosis.

Did you find any remarkable detail in the personal and social history of our patient that can help to make the diagnosis?

There are several details in the history of the patient that can help in the diagnosis process. He has a family history of related illnesses where his father died from cirrhosis of the liver, and the mother died from colon cancer after suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This condition shows that he could have inherited some traits of illnesses from his parents hence the information is crucial in diagnosis. Besides, he lived a social life that posed a threat to his health, for example, he smoked cigarettes since the age of 24 and took alcohol till the time he had the stroke. He also had a habit of changing drugs which could affect his health. These habits led to the development of the disease therefore critical in diagnostic decisions.

What results do you expect to find in the tests ordered?

The expected results from the tests ordered could be that Mr. Franklin has dementia. However, it is not clear what kind of dementia to expect. He might end up suffering from either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The former could be due to his habit of drinking alcohol and smoking that could lead to blockage of blood vessels while the latter could be as a result of genetics since his parents died from related illnesses as well as his overweight nature. Based on the symptoms he is experiencing, the patient is likely to measure positive for dementia (Roof, Dumitra, and Ituarte, 2017).

What are some future complications the patient is at risk of developing?

The patient is at risk of developing future complications like Alzheimer's disease, stroke, vascular dementia, and cognitive impairment which are caused by high homocysteine levels. The patient is at risk of having a cerebrovascular accident again. If he does not quit the drinking and smoking habits as well as get a valid diagnosis the symptoms could worsen.

What organs are included in the upper digestive system? Mention and explain at least three other conditions of the upper digestive system that may be a cause of digestive bleeding.

Other organs included in the upper digestive system include the esophagus, liver, duodenum, gallbladder, and stomach (Abourgergi, Travis, $ Saltzman, 2015). These organs together can also be referred to as the upper gastrointestinal tract. Three conditions that could lead to digestive bleeding are hemorrhoids, ulcers, and Mallory-Weiss tear. These conditions can be cured or controlled to prevent the bleeding.

What specific sign on the physical exam is characteristic of upper digestive system bleeding?

The specific sign showing bleeding in the upper digestive system bleeding is the tenderness of the epigastric region. This condition indicates that the epigastric region is weak and could rupture causing bleeding.

What organs are included in the lower digestive system? What are some causes of lower digestive system hemorrhages, and how do you differentiate them from upper digestive system hemorrhages?

The lower digestive system, also known as lower gastrointestinal tract consists of organs such as the ileum, colon, and anus. It is aided by some accessory organs like the pancreas and liver. Some of the causes of this condition are cancer, constipation, and hemorrhoids (Izzy et al., 2018). They can be differentiated from the upper digestive hemorrhages by viewing the stool of the patient. The Lower gastrointestinal bleeding leads to passage of fresh red blood through the rectum while the upper digestive bleeding could only cause a stool having altered blood.

According to the patient's previous medical history, it is possible that he has cirrhosis of the liver? Why? Can cirrhosis of the liver be a cause of upper digestive bleeding? What is the prognosis? Explain.

It is true that the patient could have cirrhosis of the liver due to his past drinking habit. Besides, his father died of the same illness which could have a genetic impact on him. This disease is a cause of upper digestive bleeding because it could cause a blockage of the blood vessels hence leading to rapture (Nelson, Anderson, Sargenti, Lindgren, and Prytz, 2018). At early stages, the prognosis is not harsh but as it develops the prognosis becomes adverse and could result in immediate death. Therefore it is advisable to take preventive measures early enough, diagnosis in time, as well as provide adequate treatment.

Are there any specific risk factors of diseases of the gallbladder or pancreas? If so, why, and what is the prognosis?

There are risk factors for diseases of the gallbladder or pancreas, for example, the gallstones which may block the pancreatic duct causing inflammation and could cause gallbladder cancer as well. The condition could show symptoms or not, and its prognosis is in most cases good due to the availability of effective treatment especially by removal of the gallbladder (Yoo, 2018).


Abougergi, M. S., Travis, A. C., & Saltzman, J. R. (2015). The in-hospital mortality rate for upper GI hemorrhage has decreased over 2 decades in the United States: a nationwide analysis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy, 81(4), 882-888.

Izzy, S., Rubin, D. B., Ahmed, F. S., Akbik, F., Renault, S., Sylvester, K. W., ... & Feske, S. K. (2018). Cerebrovascular Accidents During Mechanical Circulatory Support: New Predictors of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Strokes and Outcome. Stroke, STROKEAHA-117.

Nilsson, E., Anderson, H., Sargenti, K., Lindgren, S., & Prytz, H. (2018). Patients with liver cirrhosis show worse survival if decompensation occurs later during course of disease than at diagnosis. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology, 53(4), 475-481.

Raoof, M., Dumitra, S., & Ituarte, P. H. G. (2017). Supplementary Online Content.

Yoo, K. S. (2018). Management of Gallstone. The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, 71(5), 253-259.

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