All the civilizations in the world had specific sites in where they preferred to build their cities or administrative headquarters depending on several factors such as security, water and food availability, accessibility to the sea, and with many other traditional beliefs on the location of the city (Wright, 1977). However, to the ancient Chinese, cities were not regarded as the central aspect of ushering new kingdoms. The main significant thing was agriculture which was practised by peasant men and women in the villages up to the time land became under control is when centres were reconstructed for the imperial authority.
Hence the cosmology of the elements of the centres came from the knowledge of the peasant villagers and that of the foreign visitors (Romans). Thus the cosmological ideas were later transferred to the elites who shared them to other members in the society (Wright, 1977). The symbiotic relationship of the elite Chinese with their emperors the cities flourished greatly due to the location of china in the middle part of the world with the civilization of the "radiator Maximus" on the "son of heaven". The emperor was the main symbol in the ruling of the Chinese microcosm from the principal capital. The influence of the Chinese cosmology was significantly influenced by the synthesis of the neo Confucian that occurred from 10th-20th centuries which reverted people to their traditional ways and designs. Thus the ideology discouraged inventions in the designing and symbolic acts of the cities. The harsh rule of Mongol and the order from the Chinese in the northern sung greatly influenced the cosmology of the towns to be conservative in coming up with innovations in the building of the cities.
Jane Jacobs's Death and Life of the American Cities
Jacob is mainly worried about the challenges that are facing the plans and designs of the city in the whole of the twentieth century (Jacob, 1992). She realizes that the layout of the restructuring the town has been failing and nothing has been done to eliminate the slums and the heaps of the rotting and stinking neighbourhoods. Hence, according to her argument, the elites and people who were involved in planning the city are the ones to blame. In her oversight about the town and the nearby town by examining its streets, parks, sidewalks and the surroundings, she automatically gets to understand the main factors that contributed to the success of the neighbouring city.
The neighbourhood city has parks and sideways with streets that are safe in a way that gives way to people and spacious in such a way that kids can be assessed and trained. She, however, takes an in-depth assessment of the factors that has led to the success of the neighbourhood and those that are lagging the neighbourhood city behind from progressing (Jacob, 1992). The different features and shapes of the buildings in the town have a particular significance rather than the aesthetic presentation but in their value in terms of rent charges. Therefore through the affordable cost in terms of rent, there are quite many small enterprises that have been put in place that are of great use to the city residences. Thus through the creation of these small enterprises such as art galleries, bars and restaurants have greatly influenced and attracted people to the area throughout the day.
Thus according to Jacobs, she argues that there is a need to offer subsidized charges to the families that cannot afford the standard cost in terms of renting the house. Therefore the low income earning people should be accommodated by the non-government organizations in typical house rather than through projects. Hence, encouraging diversity by ensuring that each individual's choice is guaranteed. Therefore the one who will want to remain will have no problem. Thus the main reason that makes corruption to be rampant in the surrounding society mainly because the approaches against corruption remain in existence with no change.
There is also an aspect of the economic relationships of the neighbourhood city with the other town has also been examined and analyzed by jane Jacob (Jacob, 1992). The mains aspects that are the main contributors of the rotting heaps and establishment of the slum in the city must be present for several years for an area to reach the status of being declared to be a slum. Although there are many ways through which the rotting heaps can be curbed and the process of decomposition overturned, the individuals responsible for designing and planning the city are yet to act on the matter. They have no plans or strategies in place in the effort of controlling the decaying heaps. Hence the construction of slums will not at any time eliminate the rotting heaps, and in the other hand complete removal of the decaying surroundings will not come up with the explanation of getting rid of the slums in the city.
The main reason that will make slums to be in existence for a long time is through the increasing instability in the population of the people in the current cities. Therefore getting people out of the slums is impossible as most of the people will not be ready to get out of the slums. She, therefore, argues that the only way of getting out of the slums is through encouraging and motivating the people in the slums to develop their surroundings. Thus through the process, the living standards of the people will be highly improved and in a short period.
Therefore, the transformation of the city will need individuals who have the spirit to stay and reside in the surrounding area. Thus, according to Jane Jacob, the appropriate main work of the person responsible in planning a city is to do a thorough examination and assessment around the city and come with the possible solutions that could make them succeed or fail in planning the city. Thus it is good for the city planners to take into consideration the factors which will significantly enhance the positive development of the town and drop the ideas that will lead them in failing. Hence in structuring the city, it does not mean demolishing out the building and reconstructing new ones. Still, it is all about the innovative ideas on how they should be modified to give an exceptional outlook. Thus according to Jacob, the existing planning in the city lacks the instruments and apparatus in restructuring the city.
Therefore, most of the cities have the problem of their planed complications of several related factors. Thus the need for the strategic way of simplifying the planning complications in restructuring the towns.
Jacob, J. (1992). Death and life of more magnificent American cities. Vintage Book, reprint.
Wright, A. F. (1977). The cosmology of the Chinese city.
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