Adults vs Children Learning Characteristics - Annotated Bibliography

Paper Type:  Annotated bibliography
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1354 Words
Date:  2023-04-12

Anh, P. L. (n.d.). Academia. Retrieved March 7, 2020, from

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This scholarly work is an essential inclusion in the research materials because it is one of the few literary works that provide a direct comparison of adult and children learning characteristics. Anh (n.d) even goes an extra step to provide teaching and assessment tips, which enables the reader to identify how the adult and young learners' teaching techniques differ. The source also provides tips on relating to young adults, which makes it one of the few works of literature that can provide such information. Despite its lack of publication date, Anh (n.d) makes for a credible source. The article was sourced from, which is a database for scholarly materials. Its only downside is that it focused on English language teaching, as is the same case with most other materials in this annotated bibliography.

Derakhshan, A., Tahery, F., & Mirarab, N. (2015). Helping adults and young learners to communicate in speaking classes with confidence. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 520.

As a peer-reviewed source, Derakhshan, Tahery & Mirarab (2015) makes for one of the most credible sources for the research. It is also the only literary work in this bibliography that purely addresses the techniques for both young and adult learners. According to Derakhshan et al. (2015), confidence is an integral part of student learning. The author also proposes teacher awareness as one of the tools to tackle the differences that exist between adult and young learners. Other techniques include student motivation and the teacher-student relationship. The study by Derakhshan et al. (2015) suffers from one main weakness, which is that it is overly focused on the teaching of the English language, either as a second language or as a foreign language. However, it makes for a valuable addition because the concepts discussed in the article have significant application in the research concepts.

Elango, S., Garcia, J. L., Heckman, J. J., & Hojman, A. (2015). Early childhood education. In Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume 2 (pp. 235-297). University of Chicago Press.

The journal article concentrates on the concepts of early childhood education. The article is essential for the research because it looks at the issues affecting children's education, which is a vital part of young learners' life. The author talks specifically about the childhood environment as one of the factors contributing to the disparity between young learners. The research will rely on the insights of the book when addressing learning theories such as Bandura's social learning theory, which links cognitive, environmental, and behavioral factors as the factors that determine a child's learning experience.

Findsen, B., & Formosa, M. (2016). International perspectives on older adult education. Cham: Springer.

Findsen & Formosa (2016) is a book which rather than confining the study to the United States, the book looks at adult education from a global perspective. It is an essential material for this research when it comes to comparing adult learning in the United States with the rest of the world. The education system in the United States has been criticized for falling behind that of its peers. This book is here to verify the credibility of such claims by looking at adult education in other countries of both developed and developing states. The only downside to the material is that it talks explicitly about older adult education, which makes it challenging to use for young learners. However, it remains relevant for the research because the research talks about both young and adult learners.

International Teacher Training Organization. (2019). The difference in teaching young learners versus teaching adults. Retrieved March 7, 2020, from

The source is a good inclusion into the materials because it directly addresses the differences that exist between teaching young learners and adult learners. Internal Teacher Training Organization (2019) makes for a credible source because the information within it comes from an organization that is directly involved in the education sector. The source addresses factors such as the student-teacher ratio, rate of progress, classroom activities, and behavior. Despite being shallow, some of the information provided by the material, such as behavioral differences between young and adult learners go hand in hand with the proposed learning theories such as social learning theory.

Kapur, Radhika. (2019). The Profession and Practice of Adult Education.

The material is a scholarly work by Dr. Radhika Kapur from the University of Delhi in India. The article specifically looks at the profession and practice of adult education. Some of the relevant topics covered within the research article include an introduction into the adult learner, necessary literary skills, and understanding learning styles. According to Kapur (2019), learners have preferred methods of processing information and deriving meaning from it. Educators need to grasp an understanding of these preferred methods if they want to relate to adult learners, younger learners, or both.

Malik, M. (2016). Assessment of a professional development program on adult learning theory. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(1), 47-70.

As a peer-reviewed source, Malik (2016) makes for a very trustworthy material that can provide reliable information. The material introduces adult learning theories, which can improve the learning processes of adult learners. The theories proposed by Malik (2016) can be compared with the theoretical framework of the research. According to the author, those who used these adult learning theories reported an increased level of student development awareness. Another benefit of the source is that despite having a particular focus on the adult learning processes, it still makes inferences to young learners. According to Malik (2016), as a person matures, his or her self-concept moves from a dependent personality toward one of a self-directing human being.

UNICEF. (2019). Early childhood education. Retrieved March 7, 2020, from material from UNICEF looks at childhood education from a global perspective. The information from the source is also reliable because it is a UNICEF report. According to UNICEF (2019), pre-primary education is the foundation of a child's journey. Unfortunately, the report also reveals some bad news concerning childhood education. The report indicates that nearly half of pre-primary school children are yet to join a pre-school. The report by UNICEF can provide valuable information for the introduction section of the paper as well as the research background. It shows why it is essential to conduct additional research on the topics that involve childhood education. It discusses the quality of primary education, which is determined by the teachers' ability to engage with their learners.

Whitaker, L. (2020, March). American English Webinar Series. American English Webinar Series. Retrieved from

A presentation from the American English Webinar Series sponsored by the U.S Department of State. The webinar teachers' educators on strategies of engaging with young learners. As a result, Whiateker (2020) can provide information on the recommendations that can be employed to get better results out of young learners. The material discusses theories such as Piaget's cognitive development theory, which provides information on the cognitive differences that exist between young learners and their adult counterparts. The presentation is in the form of slides, which makes it an easy read. The information is represented in point form hence the need to conduct more in-depth research on the points outlined in the presentation.

Witek, K. (2011). University of Bielsko-Biala, Bielsko-Biala.

It is a scholarly work by Karolina Witek from the University of Bielsko-Biala, in Poland. The material is a thesis paper on educating young learners. Witek (2011) conducted empirical research into the methods used to engage young learners using quantitative analysis. The results indicated that a significant portion of the methods is practical. His research is vital for the study because it analyses theories such as Neuro-linguistic programming, multiple intelligence theory, and their impact on the learning process of young learners. Witek (2011) also discusses motivation as one of the fundamental tools in learning and an essential determiner of the learning capability of students. The conclusion reached by the research work can be used to make an argument for, and against some learning theories and techniques.

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Adults vs Children Learning Characteristics - Annotated Bibliography. (2023, Apr 12). Retrieved from

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